Sample paper: Literature Review – Introduction to econometrics

Impact of globalization on economic growth and poverty reduction

An econometric analysis study conducted by Shabab & Islam (2018) aimed to investigate the impact of globalization on economic growth and poverty reduction. In the last three years Bangladesh has shown an improvement in its economic growth rate due to globalization. This paper showed that that globalization in Bangladesh has positive impact to reduction of poverty mainly in rural areas and also the difference between the rich and the poor has increased in Bangladesh in this period of time. The article also claims that the strategy of the public to globalization should go beyond and create adequate opportunity for vulnerable people and provide them with skills that can help them generate more income to improve their lifestyle by globalization.    

Using the analysis of growth poverty nexus from 1990-2010 in Bangladesh, the authorsshowed that globalization has a positive impact on poverty reduction in the country and especially in the rural areas. This because through globalization, development can be dispensed to the rural areas and allow rural areas to find lucrative jobs. Globalization also enhance employment opportunities in non-tradable sectors, improve agricultural and manufacturingproduction in the rural areas. By doing so, the government is likely to reduce the cases of rural to urban migration which has been one of the key cause of poverty in the urban areas. By empowering youths in villages and in rural areas, the government can enhance creativity and take advantage of unutilized natural resources in the rural areas. This clearly shows that boosting non-tradable sector can help people to find more wage employment and hence reducing dependency rate while also improving their standards of living. However, this econometricsstudy showed that globalization is not enough to steer economic growth forward and reducepoverty reduction.

Impact of ICT on Economic Growth for Qatar in Globalization

A research done by Hodrob & Awad (2016) aimed to evaluate economic analysis on impacts of ICT on economic growth. It is prudent to note that the importance and significance of the role of ICT is stemmed from empowering people, government and organizations to renovate information into the knowledge to drive a progressive change in the society. In Qatar and other countries, ICT practices and activities plays an essential role in enhancing and improving productivity, growth rate and economic development. Many developed countries in the world has given a great intensity on ICT drivers, tools and techniques that enhance a continuous technology development. The authors showed that economists’ forests that economic growth is greatly influenced ICT investments.  The outcome of the research showed that there is a positive relationship between GDP per capita and the ICT index.

Technological advancement and adoption of ICT services helps to improve and streamline production services, automate production process, and reduce the cost of production in the country. The adoption of ICT services in Qatar helps to disseminate information to the production and manufacturing sector, improve information technology as well as improvingservice delivery in various sectors. The study examined the effects of ICT capital and laborstocks on economic development in Qatar from 1993-2013. The data was analyzed using a linear logistic model. The econometric results of the study showed that there is a positive impact of using ICT services to the Qatar economic growth with 0.470 points. The importance of ICT services in this case is that it connects different economic sectors in Qatar and hence improving manufacturing and productivity in the country. However, coordinating ICT and IT services as well as other forms of information regulation can help to streamline dissemination of information, improve production services as well as empower more people to utilize the available opportunities in the regarding ICT and IT services and hence enhancing economic development in Qatar.

Determinants of population growth in UK.

An article by Alvarez-Dias et al (2018) utilized economic analysis to investigate determinates of population growth. The study was based on United Kingdom and investigatedthree variables in regards to the population growth. These variables includes fertility rate in the country, mortality rate and life expectancy. The authors showed that fertility rate in the country is the leading determinants of population growth not only in UK buts also in the whole world. Fertility is defined as the occurrence of birth in a given year. The country production is measured in terms of crude birth rate (CBR) and general fertility rate (GFR) of a given population. The CBR shows the number of birth per year in 1000 population as based in this study. The findings showed that when CBR is greater than 2.0, the population is likely to increase when its less than 2.0 the country is likely to experience population reduction. The study also showed that UK has a CBR of 2.5 which signifies that the fertility rate of UK residents is high.

Mortality rate is another significant factor that determine the population growth in UK. Mortality rate is defined as the rate and number of deaths in a year per 1000 population. Examining mortality rates helps to indicate the general health of the country, the living of standards, country’s economic conditions as well as nutrition and level of development in the country.  The study showed that in 2017, there were 700,000 successful births and 669,000 death in the country which shows 0.95% mortality rate. This signifies relatively low mortality rate in UK since it’s less than 1.

Life expectancy is another factor that determine population growth according to the authors. The authors showed that economic development is positively related to the life expectancy in United Kingdom. The study also showed that life expectancy in UK is decreasing significant from 2010 due to the use of antibiotics and modern health facilities.

Agricultural production and economic growth in India

A research study by Kulshrestha & Agrawal (2019) aimed to examine the agricultural production and its impact to the Indian economic growth. It is worth to note India is the largest producer of milk, jute and pulses in the world and second largest producer of wheat, rice, sugarcane and horticultural crops in the world. The data for this study was collected using secondary data from economic survey of India from 1967-2017. The study used linear growth regression with DGP being dependent variable and major crops and factors which affects economic growth being explanatory variable. The major crops under investigation were wheat, rice, groundnut, sugarcane, cotton and pulses. The data analysis was conducted using E-view software.

The coefficient results showed that there is a positive relationship between the GDP and major crop production in that for every 1% increase of major crop production, there is 17% increase of the GDP in the country. This is because of the large scale production of major crops in India. The analyses also showed that in 2017, 60% of the poor working people in India made their living from agricultural activities which in turn shows that agriculture plays an essentialrole to the economic growth. The study showed that in the same year, India generated a GDP of 17% from agricultural activities just behind manufacturing sector which generated 20% of the GDP. This clearly shows that in India, the government should focus and remit much resources to the agricultural sector as it one of the leading sector that contributes greatly to the economic growth. Some of the factors that enhance agricultural success in the country includes good and fertile soil, adequate rainfall in many parts of the country as well as adequate resources provided by the government to boost agricultural activities.

Impact of Public Investment in Economic Growth of Kosovo

An article by Ziberi, Miftari & Leonita (2021) aimed to analyze the relationship between and the impact of public investments in road infrastructure on the economic growth of Kosovo. The study analyzed various macroeconomics factors that affects economic growth such as consumption, investments, exports and imports. It is prudent to note that economic growth and the public growth are perceived to be some of the underlying problems faced by many developing countries, Kosovo being one of them. This study addressed two aspects that are likely to impact the economic growth in Kosovo. These are theoretical analysis of different literaturesthat elaborates on the elements of infrastructural development such as social and economic and road infrastructure. The study used econometric multiple regression model to analyze the impact of the public investments such as road infrastructure and economic growth. The source of data was secondary sources from Kosovo agency of statistics. According to the regression analysis, the study showed that public investments in road infrastructure plays a significant role in enhancing economic growth in Kosovo.

Developing road sector ensures that manufacturing goods are delivered to the markets on time while also ensuring that raw materials are delivered to the factories and hence streamlining manufacturing and production sector. The study concluded that having an efficient transport infrastructure reduce the operational cost of business and improve total factor productivity in Kosovo. For instance, road transport in many countries including Kosovo act as a catalyst for the growth of the economy and hence the government should focus much on improving the infrastructure in the country.


Alvarez-Dias, M., d’Hombres, B., Ghisetti, C., Pontarollo, N., & Dijkstra, L. (2018). The Determinants of Population Growth: Literature review and empirical analysis.

Hodrob, R., & Awad, S. (2016). Econometric analysis of the impact of ICT on economic growth for Qatar in globalization context. Economics5, 6th.

Kulshrestha, D., & Agrawal, K. K. (2019). An econometric analysis of agricultural production and economic growth in India. Indian Journal of Marketing49(11), 56-65.

Shabab, S. A., & Islam, S. A. H. M. (2018). Impact of globalization on economic growth and poverty reduction: a case study of Bangladesh during 1990s. Art Human Open Acc J2(5), 308-312.

Ziberi, B. F., Miftari, F., & Leonita, O. M. A. J. (2021). The econometric approach of the impact of public investment in the road-infrastructure in the economic growth of Kosovo. Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy9(1), 5-16.

Sample paper: Employee Retention in Restaurant Industry


Employee retention is key in solving the restaurant industry labor crisis. While many restaurants has continued to struggle to being in new employees, others has success with keeping their employees by creating a positive culture, boosting benefits and also offering clear paths for a career growth among the employees. As argued by Frye, Kang, Huh & Lee (2020) successful employee retention can save any business from productivity losses. This is because high retention workplace tends to employ more engaged workers who can get the work done efficiently. Notably, engaged employees are more likely to improve their customer relationship, get commitment to the company as well as offer quality services which in turn leads to improved productivity. In restaurant industry, employee retention is important to keep the quality of food prepared in the restaurant constant and also retain the existing customers while also attracting visiting ones. Therefore, this study examines some of the employee retention strategies and measures in restaurant industry.

Improving training and staff communication

Oncse new employees has been recruited for the job, proper training is key to retention as far as career progression is concerned. Cross training is becoming more common in restaurant industries where it’s easy for the employees to swap roles since most of them work behind the counters either in the kitchen or at the cash registers. Employee training is one of the best approach to retain new employees as it equips them with new skills and knowledge how to manage customers well, improve their communication skills with other staffs and customers as well as improving their service provision (Bibi, Ahmad & Majid, 2018). By training employees, the manager will be able to tailor them services and ensure they provide restaurant services based on manager’s requirements and specifications and not how they wish.

As part of providing continuous feedback on employee performance, managers should help new employees to identify areas of their professional growth within the restaurants. Since there are various departments in restaurants such as chefs, cashiers and those who serve customers, it is important to provide training based on the employee competency and his/her area of specification to avoid conflict of interest in the restaurant (Baharin & Hanafi, 2018). As a restaurant manager, I would make it apriority to invest in my employee’s professional development. In this case, I will give them ample time to attend virtual conferences, provide tuition reimbursement for whoever need to boost their skills. This in turn provides motivation to the new employees, make them feel valued and appreciated and hence feel more comfortable to work in the restaurants which in turn improves their retention rate.

Increase wages to the employees

One of the most important aspect for employee training not only in restaurant industry but also in all sectors is offering lucrative wages that meets employee needs. As a manager revamping your employee package to meet evolving employee needs can improve employeemotivation and lure then to stay in the restaurant for many years. Due to labor shortage in restaurant industry in this post covid19 era, many restaurants are offering jobs with benefit packages in order to attract and retain new employees. According to Rosie (2019) 31% of the restaurant in United States are offering medical insurance to the employees while others offering parental leave and tuition help among other benefits. Offering insurance benefits to the employees and also enrolling them to the pension schemes can give assurance to the employees regarding their future growth and hence giving them enough reasons to continue working with the restaurant.

High wages is the ultimate need for every employees right now. This implies that offering higher wages is the most tangible way for the managers to show that they value them and wouldn’t wish them to quit the job. Although restaurant employers may not give their employees the wage requirement, trying to offer favorable wage bill and other incentives such as medical cover, insurance cover and pension scheme benefits can give employees an assurance of their better future.

Support employee mental health

Another significant strategy that can be used to retain employees in restaurant industry is by supporting their mental health. In many times, restaurant industry is taxing and the outbreak of covid19 pandemic has added more stress to the job. Additionally, restaurant industry is one of the most stressing sector as employees are required to work for long hours and get committed to the work all the day. According to Katia (2021), one of the main reason why employees leave restaurant industry is to find new work environment, many employees are always fed up with high stress of extreme working conditions, difficulty in dealing with customers and other staffs and hence looking to other industries to work. One of the approaches of supporting mental health is by providing extra paid time off to reduce burnout and also offer employees a chance to recharge.

As a restaurant manager, I would expose my employees to a free and affordable mental health resources. This involves encouraging breaks and transparency about the parts of the workthat are mote mentally taxing. Although these things may not erase problems from the employee’s face, but they will show that as a manager I care about them. Providing mental education to the employees, organizing charity works and outreach to the employees can help to reduce their mental stress and also help them to relax away from the job. By doing so, this is likely to lure employees to remain in the job and hence enhancing their retention rate.

Strengthening the restaurant culture

Company culture plays an essential role in keeping employees engaged at work whilealso enhancing increased productivity and overall job satisfaction among the employees. Buildings a more positive restaurant culture needs a multi-pronged approach which includes opening more lines of communication with employees, offering employees autonomy as well as providing better benefits to them. To retain new employees and keep them engaged to the restaurant activities, managers should strengthen the restaurant culture and enhance a good relationship with customers and other staffs (Smith, 2020). One of the approach of strengthening restaurant culture is by boosting employee morale such as organizing team outing and enhancing volunteer activities among the employees. This in turn is likely to provide moments to the employees to deepen their investment, improve their relationship with each other and also make them get commitment to the success of the restaurant.

As a manager, I would also build a strong working culture among the employees by providing career development opportunities, engaging them in an open communication to get feedback from them as well as improving communication between the management and employees. This in turn improves employee retention rate in the restaurant while also establishing a strong working team.

For those you lose and choose to separate what will you do then?

Restaurant managers should inform the HR that the employee is or has resigned from the work and make plans for the employee to finalize or transition the underlying projects. This also involves distributing the work and responsibilities initially done by the employees until a replacement is found. However, for the resigning or retiring employees, managers should offer accrued benefits to the employees and other cash outs such as severance pay, accrued vacation, overtime and sick pay. Restaurant managers should also provide retirement benefits to the retiring employees and ensure all their dividends and proceeds are well paid before they part ways with the employees. The retirement benefits consists of leave encashment, retirement gratuity and the amount they contributed to their provident fund account throughout their working service.

Making arrangements to recruit new employees should be initiated immediately after the other employee leave the work. This is prevent any working gap or cause delay in service provision. However, as a manager, I would first delegate services done the previous employee to the remaining employees before getting replacement. Finding replacement as soon as possible can help to keep the productivity constant and also ensure there no delay in offering services to the customers. Employees, however, should be encouraged to notify their managers early in advance if they are quitting their job to allow enough time to seek for the new employees.


This study has noted that high employee retention workplace tends to employ more engaged workers who can get the work done efficiently. Notably, engaged employees are more likely to improve their customer relationship, get commitment to the company as well as offer quality services which in turn leads to improved productivity. Some of the measures of retaining employees in the restaurants includes increasing employee training and staff communication, increasing wages to the employees, supporting their mental health as well as improving the restaurant culture. This study also noted that providing career development opportunities, engaging them in an open communication to get feedback from them as well as improving communication between the management and employees. This in turn improves employee retention rate in the restaurant while also establishing a strong working team.


Baharin, N. L., & Hanafi, W. N. W. (2018). Effects of Talent Management on Employee Retention: A Case Study of Hospitality Industry. Global Business & Management Research10(3).

Bibi, P., Ahmad, A., & Majid, A. H. (2018). HRM practices and employee retention: The moderating effect of work environment. In applying partial least squares in tourism and hospitality research. Emerald Publishing Limited.

Frye, W. D., Kang, S., Huh, C., & Lee, M. J. M. (2020). What factors influence Generation Y’s employee retention in the hospitality industry? An internal marketing approach. International Journal of Hospitality Management85, 102352.

Katia, D. (2021). Half of U.S. Hospitality Workers Won’t Return in Job Crunch.

Rosie, B. (2019). 31% of restaurants offer health insurance to workers, survey finds.

Smith, R. (2020). How CEOs can support employee mental health in a crisis. Harvard Business Review.

Power point presentation:impact on healthcare and nursing

Patient safety

patient safety involves monitoring patients for clinical deterioration, detecting errors, understanding care processes and weaknesses inherent in medical systems.

Patient safety improves the outlook and perception of patients, caregivers and the whole community towards professional nursing practices


Quality of care measures/monitoring

Quality care measures helps to identify significant aspects of care such as patient safety, effectiveness and medical fairness

Improve nursing practices by reflecting upon and discussing issues related to quality of patient care, patient experience.

Risk Management

Risk management prevent mistakes and costly errors that can result to patient’s death.

reduce health and safety risks and hence improving their nursing profession.

reduce medical errors that are likely to jeopardize the ability of nurses to offer quality medical service


Privacy, confidentiality, and security of patient data

Patient privacy and confidentiality build trust with patients

privacy and confidentiality is both legal and ethical concern that impact professional nursing practices.

Impacts professional nursing practices by protecting  private information about patients during medical provision.


Bani Issa, W., Al Akour, I., Ibrahim, A., Almarzouqi, A., Abbas, S., Hisham, F., & Griffiths, J. (2020). Privacy, confidentiality, security and patient safety concerns about electronic health records. International Nursing Review67(2), 218-230.

Burke, R. E., & Werner, R. M. (2019). Quality measurement and nursing homes: measuring what matters. BMJ quality & safety28(7), 520-523.

Park, M. Y., & Kim, E. A. (2018). Perception of importance of patient safety management, patient safety culture and safety performance in hospital managerial performance of hospital nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration24(1), 40-50.

Querstret, D., O’Brien, K., Skene, D. J., & Maben, J. (2020). Improving fatigue risk management in healthcare: A scoping review of sleep-related/fatigue-management

Sample paper: How database management system improve business efficiency


Database management system plays an essential role in improving business efficiencyand enhancing productivity of businesses. In production and manufacturing companies, database management allows businesses to manage company’s essential information while also improvingdata processes and increase business value. Database management topic is important as it free the users across the organization from repetitive and time consuming data processing tasks and hence resulting to more productive workforce, better compliance with regulations and better informed decisions. It was first designed by Charles Bachman in 1960 to help businesses to create and manage data more efficiently and improve organization’s transparency and accountability. The primary objective of this paper is to enlighten organizations and business entities on the importance of having a working database management system to protect employee, customer and client’s data.


A research study done by Zhang et al (2018) aimed to explore the benefits of database management system in the manufacturing companies. The authors provided two distinct benefitsthat cuts across all the sectors and that should be embraced by the companies. These are 1) improving data sharing and data security and 2) effective data integration. The study showed that data management system in manufacturing companies helps the users of information and data to share data quickly and effectively and ensure data security and prevent cases of cybercrime among others. It also enable faster access to more accurate data which in turn helps end users such as salespeople to speed up their sales cycles and get more accurate in their sales prospects.

Implementation of database management systems in the organization helps to promote more integrated picture of the company’s operations by illustrating how processes in one segment affects other segments. Manufacturing companies are involved in making and selling products on daily basis. This implies a functional and efficient database management system is required to keep records of all details of quantity of products, bills, purchases and supply chain. Automating these processes and data management is the real deal as it reduces the cost of data management and other operations of the company.

Ushakov, Cherkasova & Shatila (2021) investigated the impact of database management in productivity of the companies. The study showed that deploying a working database management system results to increased productivity since it empowers employees and staffs to spend more time on high value activities and operations of the company such as strategic initiatives, research and development and also less time used to cleanse data within the company. On the other hand, Abed (2020) provided a contrasting opinion about database management in the performance and productivity of firms. The authors showed that database management requires educated and skilled experts to manage and maintain the databases. In this case, companies are required to train experts and spend more money in hiring new experts which in turn increases operational cost of the company.

Muhammad (2020) provided a conceptual framework of the database management system to showcase computerized data keeping system among the companies as shown in the figure below

Figure 1: Database management system (Muhammad, 2020)

Based on the above figure, it can be noted that database management system comprise of various components that aids to ensure management and security of data within an organization. These includes computer applications used to enhance data management, users of the company’sdata and the four types of database system; relational, hierarchical, flat files and objects database. While designing database management system, companies should consider application used to manage the data and the users of the data. Having a simplistic and user friendly application to ensure the users can retrieve information and data quickly and efficiently is the key to ensure proper functioning of database management system.

Zhang, Bai, Wang & Zhang (2020) examined application of database management in manufacturing firms and how it enhance business efficiency. The study showed that database management is greatly applied in manufacturing and supply chain management to track and manage inventory warehouse and enhance operational efficiency in the inventory storage. The study also showed that database management system is used in managing data for the supply chain applications that helps to track the flow of goods and services. This includes tracking the flow the movement of raw materials, inventory and storage of raw materials and finished goods and the sales of the products.

Regardless of massive benefits of database management system to the organizations, it is important to note its drawbacks before implementing it. For instance, database management system requires hiring data management staffs and experts, training software and hardware developers and hiring additional programmers to manage installation and integration and database management infrastructure. These activities require additional cost as they are very expensive and hence increasing the operational cost of the company while also reducing the profit margin. However, it cannot be denied that database management is the great deal to ensure operational and productivity efficiency.


It is clear the benefits of database management system are more and significant to the companies as compared to its drawbacks. Its two main benefits are improving data sharing and data security and effective data integration. For the manufacturing companies database management is essential as it’s used to manage data for the supply chain applications that helps to track the flow of goods and services. This includes tracking the flow the movement of raw materials, inventory and storage of raw materials and finished goods and the sales of the products. Therefore, this paper recommends for the manufacturing companies to adopt and implement a workable database management system


Zhang, B., Van Aken, D., Wang, J., Dai, T., Jiang, S., Lao, J., … & Gordon, G. J. (2018). A demonstration of the ottertune automatic database management system tuning service. Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment11(12), 1910-1913.

Abed, A. H. (2020). Big Data with Column Oriented NOSQL Database to Overcome the Drawbacks of Relational Databases. Int. J. Advanced Networking and Applications11(05), 4423-4428.

Muhammad, R. (2020). what is a Database Management System (DBMS)?

Zhang, J., Bai, X., Wang, X., & Zhang, X. (2020, November). Design and application of national reserved cultivated land resources investigation and evaluation database management system. In 2020 IEEE International Conference on Information Technology, Big Data and Artificial Intelligence (ICIBA) (Vol. 1, pp. 1075-1079). IEEE.

Ushakov, D., Cherkasova, L., & Shatila, K. (2021, December). Environmental management system and its impact on productivity. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 937, No. 2, p. 022037). IOP Publishing.

Sample paper: Compensation and benefits package


The compensation and benefits package is the summary of how the company directly or indirectly pays its employees. The package describes in details about how employers pay their employees and the non-financial benefits they offer. Proper compensation and benefits is one of the reason employees stay with employers and offer quality services due to motivation aspect created. Notably, employees and employers loyalty results to low turnover rates and high employee retention. Restaurant industry being one of the tedious sector, offering proper compensation and benefits plan helps to motivate employees and promote them to increase their productivity (Kristal, Cohen & Navot, 2020). To attract new employees and retain existing ones, employers should consider offering different compensation and benefit packages such as pay rate, bonuses, overtime pay, insurance benefits and saving package among others.

Importance of designing a good compensation and benefits package for the restaurant industry

Employee compensation is of great significance to the restaurant industry as serves as a source of motivation to the employees. Rewarding employees through salaries and bonusesmotivate employees to increase their productivity and hence quality and efficient service provision which improves the reputation and image of the restaurant. Another benefit of a proper compensation package is that it helps to attract high quality talents. Perhaps, every potential employee would like be in an excellent financial position and hence designing a right compensation structure attract top talents with right and appropriate qualifications. Increased profitability is another benefit associated with the right compensation package (Kim & Jang, 2020). Well rewarded employees are likely to showcase high quality service provision and productivity which in turn results to the increased profitability and also increase of sales revenue. In restaurant industry, paying employees well motivates them to engage well with customers, observe high quality customer service and also cook quality foods for the chefs.

Employee retention is also another benefit associated with a right compensation and benefit package. Due to the disruption of restaurant industry by the outbreak of Covid-19 pandemic, many restaurants are unable to cope up with high employee salary expectation. However, for those which has been able to meet the employee expectants in terms of salary and bonuses, they have an advantage of attracting new talents while also retaining top talents and hence maximizing their competitive advantage (Baharin & Hanafi, 2018). This implies that designing a proper employee compensation package boost their morale, enhance their satisfaction and build a good brand image to ensure the restaurant can compete well. For our restaurant, this piece provides a compensation plan that covers five areas of compensation package. These are pay rate, bonuses, overtime pay, insurance benefits and saving package.

Salary and pay rate

The salary and pay rate is the amount of money either fixed or periodical stipend paid to the employees. For the restaurant industry, the salary payment to the employees can be paid as monthly salary, daily salary and hourly salary. For our startup restaurants, there are various type of employees that need to be employed (Allegretto & Reich, 2018). These includes supervision manager, operating manager, senior chefs, customer service employees and waiters. For this case, our restaurant will pay salary to the employees in three packages. All the employees are required to work for six day and should cover at least 48 hours in a week. The total number of employees enrolled to our restaurant is 20 since it’s a startup restaurant. These includes monthly salary, daily payment and hourly paid as seen the package below


Monthly salary

Daily payment

Hourly payment

Supervision manager




Operating manager




Senior chefs




Customer service








Since our restaurant is a startup business, the pay rate to the employees is minimal as compared to other established restaurants in the city. However, the pay rate exhibited above is not rigid and it’s prone to changes as the restaurant establish itself to the market. Based on the above pay rate, the proposed monthly salary $20,000 which includes monthly, daily and hourly payment for all employees working in the restaurant.

Bonus payment

The bonus payment is the additional payment offered to the employees on top of their normal earning and it’s used by companies and business entities to appreciate employees based on the achievement of the company. In restaurant industry, bonus payment should be offered to improve the employee morale, motivate them and increase their productivity. Due to the tiresome nature of restaurant industry and long hours of operation requires payment of bonus to motivate employees to improve their productivity. For our business, payment of bonuses will help to attract quality talents while also retaining them. Being a startup business, our restaurant business will offer two types of bonuses which are monthly stipends and overtime bonus.

For the overtime workers, all the employees will be paid an equal bonus payment of $5 per hour for a minimum of 5 hours a day. On the hand, the productive employees will be given a monthly bonus voucher of $300. The total annual bonus allocation for our newly opened restaurant is $50,000 which will be allocated for the employees based on their productivity and the overtime hours.

Type of bonus


Overtime bonus (hourly pay)

$5 per hour for a maximum of 5 hours per day

Monthly stipend bonus

$300 bonus voucher

Insurance benefits

Insurance policy payment is another significant employee benefits offered to the employees to ensure their welfare is catered. Insurance policy are benefits paid by the employees to the relevant insurance firms to cover for the employees and their families in case unfortunate event occurs in their work place such as sickness and injury. The most common types of insurance benefits that are offered to the employees’ incudes medical and disability benefits, life insurance, retirement benefits among others (Schmieder & Von Wachter, 2016). For our startup restaurant business, only three insurance benefits will be offered to the employees. These are health insurance, life insurance and disability insurance. Some of the incidents that may need insurance cover from the restaurant is when an employee fall sick while in the workplace, get burned or physical industry or get disabled in the work place. The following table shows the insurance benefit package offered by our restaurant to the employees

Type of benefit

Percent of receiving benefit

Average cost for employees receiving insurance benefit

Live insurance


$200 per month

Health insurance


$200 per month

Disability insurance


$50 per month

Total monthly insurance budget


Based on the above table, it can be noted that the total monthly budget for the insurance benefits for all employees amounts to $10,000. These funds will be remitted directly from the employee salary using check off system. The only employee legible to qualify for the insurance are the full time employees but not part time employees and periodical hired employees.

Retirement benefits

Retirement benefits are the last type compensation and benefits package offered by our restaurant. These are monthly payment made by the employers to the employees as a saving plan upon their retirement. The importance of retirement benefits is to ensure that employees having a saving plan to enjoy when they retire and avoid financial constraints upon the employee retirement. Another benefit of retirement benefits is that they help to maintain employee living of standards in retirement and it provide a supplemental income for the unforeseen expenses to the retired employees. As argued by Wiatrowski (2011) group pension plan helps to guarantee a monthly or periodical income and hence enhancing a financial stability to the retired employees. Our startup restaurant will pay for the retirement benefits after five years of its operation and it will pay for the full time employees. The following table shows the social benefit plan for our restaurant.

Type of social benefit

% of the total payout

Average monthly benefit

All beneficiaries



Retirement benefits

Retired employees





Survivor benefits

Non-disabled windows






This paper has provided the proposed compensation and benefit package for the employees enrolled to the newly opened restaurant. The compensation benefits offered by the restaurant includes salary and pay rate benefits, bonus benefits, insurance benefits and retirement and social benefits. The restaurant propose a total of $80,000 monthly. This implies that rewarding employees through salaries and bonuses motivate employees to increase their productivity and hence quality and efficient service provision which improves the reputation and image of the restaurant. This implies that designing a proper employee compensation package boost their morale, enhance their satisfaction and build a good brand image to ensure the restaurant can compete well. For our restaurant, this piece provides a compensation plan that covers five areas of compensation package.


Allegretto, S., & Reich, M. (2018). Are local minimum wages absorbed by price increases? Estimates from internet-based restaurant menus. ILR Review71(1), 35-63.

Baharin, N. L., & Hanafi, W. N. W. (2018). Effects of Talent Management on Employee Retention: A Case Study of Hospitality Industry. Global Business & Management Research10(3).

Kim, H. S., & Jang, S. S. (2020). The effect of increasing employee compensation on firm performance: Evidence from the restaurant industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management88, 102513.

Kristal, T., Cohen, Y., & Navot, E. (2020). Workplace compensation practices and the rise in benefit inequality. American Sociological Review85(2), 271-297.

Schmieder, J. F., & Von Wachter, T. (2016). The effects of unemployment insurance benefits: New evidence and interpretation. Annual Review of Economics8, 547-581.

Wiatrowski, W. J. (2011). Changing landscape of employment-based retirement benefits. Monthly Labor Review.

Sample paper: HRM/MGT 3400

Question 1

Diversity is defined as the differences that exist among the people such as gender, race, religion, sexual orientation and social-economic background and ethnicity among others. Multiculturalism on the other hand refers as the way the society deals with cultural diversity and it assumes that the society benefits great from diversity through harmonious coexistence of different cultures (Ferdman, 2017). The main difference between the two concepts is that the diversity acknowledge differences among the people while Multiculturalism tends to go a step further and accept and promote diversity and the social cultural differences in the society.

An organization that focus on compliance can be determined if it stays on the track with the changing laws and regulations. In this case, the organization ensures that it identify laws and regulations that apply to its operations and stay on top of changes. An organization that focus on compliance can be determined if it accommodate different views and diversity in the organization. This involves having employees from different ethnic groups, race and social economic background and respecting their opinions and perspectives in the workplace(Beachum, 2020). On the other hand, an organizations that promotes multiculturalism is the one that overcomes language and cultural barriers, accommodate different cultural communication style and also that involves cross-cultural training in the workplace. Organizing cross cultural training helps to overcome cultural challenges in the workplace and hence improving happiness, morale and productivity among the employees. Language and cultural barrier can be handled by enhancing universal language and adopting diversity in the workplace.

Question 2

The two jobs that I have had are nursing intern and a restaurant attendant. I got these jobs at different times during my vacations and I have gained different experience and skills from both jobs. For the nursing intern, I was recruited through social media advertisement where I saw an advert in the media regarding an intern vacancy and I applied. I was called for the interview and luckily I qualified for the job. For the restaurant job, I was recruited through web advertising. The advantages of social media in recruitment strategy can attract active and passive candidates, target the ideal talent pool to boost brand and companies culture of your employer and reduces the recruiting cost. The disadvantages of social media in recruitment is that it’s hard to escape bias and also you cannot rely on its present profiles and candidates representations and hence the healthcare facilitate can attract unqualified candidates. On the other hand, web recruitment is time saving to the restaurants as managers need to scrutinize applications in the website and select the best candidate.

My organization’s selection and recruitment method is through referral is its one of the best and appropriate method that helps to hire candidates who are more engaged and more productive. A research by Van Hoye (2013) showed that 80% of employers rated perceive that referrals are the best source of above average candidates who are able to meet the demand and specification of the organization. The study also showed that referred candidates are 60% faster to hire as compared to the outsourced and web based employees and hence showing its reliability and validity. The referral recruitment used by my organization follows the legal compliance by adopting diversity, practicing universal law, and choosing the right candidates who meet the specification of the organization without discrimination.

Question 3

The advantage of engaging in lengthier recruitment process is that as an employer, you can have enough time to read over the resume, conduct phone interviews and also in-person interviews. A disadvantage is that when business take too long to review the resume, the candidates can lose interest or get job in other places and hence losing an opportunity of a skilled and top talent. On the other hand, the advantage of streamlined hiring is that the organization can get a person working right away for the company and helps to acquire top talent employees(Muscalu, 2015). The disadvantage of this selection process is that by hiring fast, the organization can miss quality and skilled employees who make late application. My future career ambition is to become a human resource manager and I personally would prefer to undertake lengthier selection process as it will give my employer a good time to go through my resume and assign me the right job based on my academic qualification and my previous experience.

The job I was hired was a nursing intern which I was hired through social media recruitment. I saw the application in LinkedIn and applied by sending my resume and cover later. After one week the HR contacted me through email for an online interview. The interview was conducted using zoom video call where HR interviewed me based on my academic qualificationand previous job experience. To me it was effective was we chatted well with the HR and cracked some jokes as I also demonstrated my qualities through zoom call. However, I would not prefer this method as it lacks rapport and formality as far as professionalism is concerned.

Question 4

Currently am employed as business consultant. The role of the business consultant is to identify weakness and challenges in a business and provide possible solution to the business. The tasks required includes marketing, management of business activities, offering financial and business advice, determine business needs and identify weaknesses, assess and analyze business practices and procedures as well as developing a detailed project plan to enhance changes and improvement to the business (Campanile, 2020). The skills and knowledge required for business consultancy includes quantitative and analytical skills, good teamwork skills, problem solving skills and good interpersonal and communication skills.

Based on the above job analysis, the business consultants are required to specialize in different areas such as marketing, human resources, business management and finance. The responsibilities for business consultants includes determining the business needs and providing viable solutions to the business, assessing and analyzing practices and procedures of the business and compiling and presenting research findings regarding the business and offering recommendations as well as organizing and managing business projects.

A good job ana