Purpose: Identify research topic (Question Title). Of note, this has multiple parts outlined below:
- Topic, the exploratory question, and a hypothesis guiding your literature review
- Whether you think a research project conducted after the literature review would be qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods, and why
- Three annotated bibliographies for scholarly articles related to the topic; must come from databases accessed through MU’s Libraries. Annotated summary must identify the article’s research question or hypothesis; research design; and findings or conclusions.
The completed assignment will be typed out, but a cover page is not necessary. The annotated bibliographies can be included one after another in the body paper.
V. Lynn Tankersley
Topic Selection Assignment
My literature review topic is the impact of recreational activities on the stress levels
among Georgia’s public safety officers. My exploratory question is whether routinely engaging
in recreational activities has a positive impact on Georgia’s public safety officers’ self-reported
levels of stress related to their employment. My hypothesis is that public safety officers who
regularly engage in recreational activities they enjoy will have lower levels of stress, based on
self-reported data, than public safety officers who do not make time for recreational activities in
their weekly or monthly schedules.
I believe the research project which will come from this literature review is well suited
for a mixed-methods project. A mixed methods approach will offer quantitative results from a
standardized stress instrument, which can be used as a pre and post-test, and qualitative or in-
depth reflections from participants regarding causes of stress and responses to interventions.
Annotated Bibliography Article #1
Vella, E. J., Milligan, B., & Bennett, J. L. (2013). Participation in outdoor recreation program
predicts improved psychosocial well-being among veterans with post-traumatic stress
disorder: A pilot study. Military Medicine, 178(3), 254-260.
Abstract: Purpose: Evaluate the effectiveness of a 2-day, 3-night outdoor recreation intervention
involving fly-fishing in reducing the psychological concomitants of stress among 74
veterans (M = 47.27, SD = 14.55 years) with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Methods: Participants completed repeated assessments of attentiveness, mood,
depression, anxiety, and somatic stress across 3 time periods, corresponding to 2 weeks
before the trip (baseline), the last day of the trip, and a 6-week follow-up. Assessments of
perceptual stress, PTSD symptoms, and sleep quality were also administered during the
baseline and follow-up periods. Results: Acute effects were observed for improvements
in attentiveness and positive mood states, coupled with significant and sustained
reductions in negative mood states, anxiety, depression, and somatic symptoms of stress.
Comparisons between the baseline and follow-up periods revealed significant
improvements in sleep quality and reductions in perceptual stress and PTSD symptoms.
Conclusions: The current findings suggest that combat veterans with PTSD may benefit
from participation in group-based outdoor recreation as a means to improve psychosocial
The article’s research question was centered on whether a recreational fly-fishing
intervention could help reduce stress levels for veterans with PTSD. The research hypothesis was
that the fly-fishing interventions would help the military veteran participants cope with their
stress and thus experience improved sleep quality. The research was quantitative, utilizing a
longitudinal predictive design and standardized assessment tools (Brief Symptom Inventory-18;
PTSD check list, military version; Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule; Perceived
Stress Scale; and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory). The results indicated veterans engaging in
fly-fishing activities reported significant reductions in their self-reported levels of stress, anxiety,
and depression and improved sleep quality at three time periods after the intervention. The
findings suggest outdoor recreational activities can be a way to help improve self-reported levels
of stress, improved mood, and improved sleep quality.
Annotated Bibliography Article #2
Craig, P. J., Alger, D. M., Bennett, J. L., & Martin, T. P. (2020). The transformative nature of
fly-fishing for veterans and military personnel with posttraumatic stress disorder.
Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 54(2), 150-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.18666/TRJ-2020-
*** no need for a Reference list IF you did not include any sources in the section prior to the