Reply to the below post in 300-400 words. The reply must include at least 3 scholarly sources (published within the last 5 years) in addition to the course textbook (attached) and relevant biblical integration. All citations and references must be in the current APA format. Do not repeat the same sources as the original post, use of the text, or Biblical integration.
The intent of this thread is to answer question four relating to discrimination. Reverse discrimination is a term used to describe discrimination against individuals identified as being in a majority group. Since the idea of reverse discrimination is synonymous with workplace affirmative action initiatives that extend as far back as the 1970s, it would not be considered a new form of discrimination that is emerging. Workplace groups that individuals may be categorized in are ethnicity, gender, nationality, race, religion, sex, or sexual orientation. Murphy (2018) describes that the intent of discrimination laws is to protect all individuals. He states that the same laws used to protect minority employees could result in reverse discrimination for those in the majority.
Affirmative action involves practices performed to promote organizational diversity. The objective of affirmative action. The thought is that establishing and maintaining a diverse workforce that brings varying perspectives would be valuable to organizational effectiveness. The challenge with building diversity within organizations is that some resort to a form of quota (Noe et al., 2021). One of the negative aspects of affirmative action is that minorities provided opportunities through it may be perceived as less qualified (Morgenroth & Ryan, 2018).
Nagele-Piazza (2021) describes diversity, equity, and inclusion (DE&I) programs as a priority for employers to enhance the workplace. In the quest to diversify workplaces, organizations may violate applicable equal employment opportunity laws unintentionally. She highlights there has been an insurgence of lawsuits filed related to reverse discrimination in job opportunities and compensation. As a result, Nagele-Piazza highlights three areas of risk that should be taken into consideration when establishing DE & I programs. Firstly, it is important to establish a positive perspective of DE & I through effective communication. Secondly, it is important that decisions are not made based on race. She provides an example of a company violating EEO laws by laying off employees based on race, as opposed to other factors like seniority. The establishment of hiring quotas from underrepresented racial groups would be considered a violation. Thirdly, fair pay is highlighted as an area that should be taken into consideration. All individuals should be compensated based on their position as opposed to their protected status.
Noe et al. (2021) describe the fire department in Birmingham, Alabama as an example of imposed quotas. The city government entered a consent decree with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to set aside 50% of positions at every level specifically to be filled by minorities. This resulted in less qualified blacks being selected over some whites deemed more qualified based on testing. The determination of the federal court was that the hiring process violated federal civil rights law. The appellate court agreed with the determination. Located adjacent to the City of Birmingham, the Jefferson County Commission entered into a consent decree for a similar type of discriminatory hiring practices toward minorities. Wright (2020) highlights that the consent decree entered on December 29, 2022, was the result of a lawsuit pertaining to discriminatory hiring practices as it relates to Blacks and women.
The Equity and Inclusion Division (EID) of HR was created at Jefferson County Commission in response to the consent decree. This student was hired to be a part of the team and guide the organization out of it. Unlike the City of Birmingham, the County did not establish a quota system that set aside a specific number of positions at all levels for Blacks and women. The Equity and Inclusion Division placed a focus on leveling the playing field through training opportunities and redesign of knowledge, skills, and abilities required to perform the job. Another question alternative pertains to the level of involvement management should have in the selection process. With the County, management was completely removed from the actual hiring of employees for their department. They were invited into the process of providing input into the knowledge, skills, and abilities applicants need to successfully perform jobs. A new selection division within the HR department was established to select applicants. The division consisted of employees with graduate degrees in Industrial/Organizational Psychology.
The Bible describes all of us as being one in Christ Jesus (New International Standard Version Bible, 2011, Galatians 3:28). That is a lesson that could be applied directly to the workplace and how individuals of all backgrounds should be treated.
Morgenroth, T., & Ryan, M. K. (2018). Quotas and affirmative action: Understanding group‐
based outcomes and attitudes. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 12(3), e12374-n/a. 10.1111/spc3.12374
Murphy, W. (2018). Distinguishing Diversity from Inclusion in the Workplace: Legal Necessity
or Common-Sense Conclusion? Journal of Business Diversity, 18(4), 65-83. 10.33423/jbd.v18i4.247
Nagele-Piazza, L. (2021, October 29). 3 Ways DE & I programs can run afoul of employment
laws. Society for Human Resource Management. https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/legal-and-compliance/employment-law/pages/ways-dei-programs-can-run-afoul-of-employment-laws.aspx (Links to an external site.)
New International Bible. (2011). Zondervan. (Original Bible, Original work published 1973)
Noe, R.A., Hollenbeck, J.R., Gerhart, B., & Wright, P.M. (2021). Human resource management:
Gaining a competitive advantage (12th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
Wright, B. (2020, December 22). Federal judge ends 38-year-old consent decree in Jefferson
County. The Birmingham Times. https://alabamanewscenter.com/2020/12/22/federal- (Links to an external site.)judge-ends-38-year-old-consent-decree-in-jefferson-county/#:~:text=The%20consent%20decree%2C%20which%20stemmed,two%20years%20with%20a%20monitor.