Organizational Behavior

Reflection and Discussion Forum Week 5

Reflection and Discussion Forum Week 5Assigned Readings:Chapter 11. CommunicationChapter 12. LeadershipInitial Postings: Read and reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Then post what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(s), term(s), and/or any other thing that you felt was worthy of your understanding in each assigned textbook chapter.Your initial post should be based upon the assigned reading for the week, so the textbook should be a source listed in your reference section and cited within the body of the text. Other sources are not required but feel free to use them if they aid in your discussion.Also, provide a graduate-level response to each of the following questions:

  1. You have recently been promoted to district manager of a large scale restaurant chain which specializes in affordable meals in a pleasant environment. In accordance with management objectives, you are responsible for increasing sales of appetizers by 20 percent by the next quarter for the 15 locations in your area. Keeping channel richness in mind, how will you make contact with the restaurant employees to facilitate the sales increase?

[Your post must be substantive and demonstrate insight gained from the course material. Postings must be in the student’s own words – do not provide quotes!] [Your initial post should be at least 450+ words and in APA format (including Times New Roman with font size 12 and double spaced). Post the actual body of your paper in the discussion thread then attach a Word version of the paper for APA review]

 

Activity #5 – Research Paper – Individual Submission

Attached Files:

Research Paper: This is a graduate course and students will be expected to research and write papers summarizing in their own words what they have found on current topics from the weekly readings. Research is a theoretical review of relevant literature and application of findings in the literature to a topic related to a specific industry, field, or business problem. The research must be conducted using peer-reviewed trade or academic journals. While Blogs, Wikipedia, encyclopedias, course textbooks, popular magazines, newspaper articles, online websites, etc. are helpful for providing background information, these resources are NOT suitable resources for this research assignment. Please Note: The UC Library staff are very helpful with assisting students in using the UC Online Library journal database. Please contact them if you have issues. In addition, the instructor has provided additional resources, including a research tutorial, in the “Course Resources” folder in the “Content” area of the course. Assignment Requirements:

  1. Choose a research topic from the chapter readings or from the list provided by your professor.
  2. Research/find a minimum at least four (4), preferably five (5) or more, different peer-reviewed articles on your topic from the University of the Cumberlands Library online business database. The article(s) must be relevant and from a peer-reviewed source. While you may use relevant articles from any time frame, current/published within the last five (5) years are preferred. Using literature that is irrelevant or unrelated to the chosen topic will result in a point reduction.
  3. Write a four (4) to five (5) page double spaced paper in APA format discussing the findings on your specific topic in your own words. Note – paper length does not include cover page, abstract, or references page(s).
  4. Structure your paper as follows:
    1. Cover page
    2. Overview describing the importance of the research topic to current business and professional practice in your own words.
    3. Purpose of Research should reflect  the potential benefit of the topic to the current business and professional practice and the larger body of research.
    4. Review of the Literature summarized in your own words. Note that this should not be a “copy and paste” of literature content, nor should this section be substantially filled with direct quotes from the article. A literature review is a summary of the major points and findings of each of the selected articles (with appropriate citations). Direct quotations should be used sparingly. Normally, this will be the largest section of your paper (this is not a requirement; just a general observation).
    5. Practical Application of the literature. Describe how your findings from the relevant research literature can shape, inform, and improve current business and professional practice related to your chosen topic.
    6. Conclusion in your own words
    7. References formatted according to APA style requirements

subject is Organizational Behavior write 500 words 2pages

Practical Connection Assignment

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Practical Connection AssignmentAt UC, it is a priority that students are provided with strong educational programs and courses that allow them to be servant-leaders in their disciplines and communities, linking research with practice and knowledge with ethical decision-making. This assignment is a written assignment where students will demonstrate how this course research has connected and put into practice within their own career.Assignment: 
Provide a reflection of at least 500 words (or 2 pages double spaced) of how the knowledge, skills, or theories of this course have been applied, or could be applied, in a practical manner to your current work environment. If you are not currently working, share times when you have or could observe these theories and knowledge could be applied to an employment opportunity in your field of study. Requirements:

  • Provide a 500 word (or 2 pages double spaced) minimum reflection.
  • Use of proper APA formatting and citations. If supporting evidence from outside resources is used those must be properly cited.
  • Share a personal connection that identifies specific knowledge and theories from this course.
  • Demonstrate a connection to your current work environment. If you are not employed, demonstrate a connection to your desired work environment.
  • You should NOT, provide an overview of the assignments assigned in the course. The assignment asks that you reflect how the knowledge and skills obtained through meeting course objectives were applied or could be applied in the workplace.

Submission: Upload/attach your completed paper to this assignment by the due date. Please see the Course Syllabus for the

Essentials of Organizational Behavior

Fifteenth Edition

Chapter 11

Communication

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

 

1

Learning Objectives

11.1 Describe the functions and process of communication.

11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.

11.3 Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication.

11.4 Describe how channel richness underlies the choice of communication channel.

11.5 Differentiate between automatic and controlled processing of persuasive messages.

11.6 Identify common barriers to effective communication.

11.7 Discuss how to overcome the potential problems of cross-cultural communication.

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Functions of Communication Learning Objective 11.1

Managing behavior

Feedback

Emotional sharing

Persuasion

Information exchange

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Communication serves five major functions within a group or organization. Almost every communication interaction that takes place performs one or more of these interactions. Keep in mind that none of the five is more important than any of the others.

3

The Communication Process (Exhibit 11-1)

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This graph outlines the communication process between the sender and the receiver. The sender takes the message to be sent and encodes it, either through verbal or written methods. The message is passed through the determined channel, and then it is handed off to the receiver, who receives the message and decodes it. The process is hindered by noise or communication barriers such as the perceived message. Feedback is the check on how successful the sender was in passing the correct message to the receiver.

 

Long Description:

Details of the communication process are as below:

Sender: Message to be sent; encoding message.

Channel: Affected by noise, which also affects sender, receiver, and feedback.

Receiver: Message received; Message decoding.

Feedback: Links receiver back to sender.

4

Channels of Communication

Formal Informal
Path follows the authority chain Messages relate to professional activities Spontaneous channels from individual choice Messages often personal or social

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The channel is the medium through which the message travels. The sender selects it, determining whether to use a formal or informal channel. Formal channels transmit messages that are related to the professional activities of the members, such as email, memos, and planned speeches. The second type is informal channels, used to transmit personal or social messages. Informal channels are more spontaneous in nature and a result of individual choices such as whom you eat lunch with.

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Direction of Communication Learning Objective 11.2

Vertically

Downward

Upward

Horizontally

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In an organization, communication flows vertically or laterally. It can flow downward from the top management to people in lower levels of the organization. It can flow up from workers on the ground floor to the CEO. Or it can flow between or within departments in a lateral movement.

6

Downward Communication

Communication that flows from one level to a lower level

One-way communication

Managers explain why a decision was made but do not solicit advice or opinions of employees

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Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level is downward communication. Managers using this one-way communication explain why decisions are made, but they don’t solicit advice or opinions from employees. This can be problematic because employees are more committed to decisions when they understand why they were made. The organization ignores potentially valuable information from employees.

7

Upward Communication

Communication that flows to a higher level

Keeps managers aware of how employees feel about their jobs, coworkers, and the organization

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To engage in effective upward communication, try to communicate in short summaries, support your summaries with actionable items, and prepare an agenda to make sure you use your boss’s attention well.

8

Lateral Communication

Communication that occurs between members of a work group, members at the same level in separate work groups, or any other horizontally equivalent workers

Saves time and facilitates coordination

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Some lateral relationships are formally sanctioned. Some are informally created to short-circuit the vertical hierarchy and expedite action.

9

Three Common Small Group Networks (Exhibit 11-2)

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In an organizational context, communication is commonly broken down into three formal small-group networks.

 

The chain is a very formal and rigid chain of command. Employees know who the next person in the chain is and that is where they give and get their information.

 

The wheel is a network where there is a central figure who controls all the communication. This type of group requires a very strong leader who can communicate effectively.

 

The all-channel network is a much more fluid arrangement where all group members communicate actively with each other and there is no formal channel or single person. This works best in a situation such as a self-managed team.

 

Long Description:

Details of the various networks are as follows:

 

Chain: In this schematic the dots are positioned in the shape of a pentagon. Each dot is interconnected to each other via a bi-directional arrow to the dot next to it, but two dots at the bottom are unconnected.

Wheel: In this schematic the dots are positioned in the form of a pentagram, where one dot connects back and forth to the other four dots.

All channel: In this schematic a pentagram is placed inside a pentagon and there are dots at its vertices. Each dot connects back and forth to all other dots.

10

Small Group Networks and Effectiveness Criteria (Exhibit 11-3)

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The effectiveness of each network depends on the outcome you are interested in.

 

Long Description:

The details are as below:

Speed: Chain, moderate; Networks wheel, fast; All channel, fast.

Accuracy: Chain, high; Networks wheel, high; All channel, moderate.

 

Emergence of a leader: Chain, moderate; Networks wheel, high; All channel, none.

Member satisfaction: Chain, moderate; Networks wheel, low; All channel, high.

11

The Grapevine

Informal communication network

Word-of-mouth

Mixed blessing

Serves employees’ needs

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The grapevine is a common network that has been shown to be an effective mode of communication. Typically, the grapevine is not controlled by management nor do they feed it information. However, employees see it as a very believable and reliable form of communication. The grapevine has no formal purpose. It is mainly there to serve the self-interests of those who use it, developing from a need for these individuals to get more information about an important but ambiguous situation. The grapevine can be a way to receive information about the situation and reduce anxiety as well as fill a social need to connect.

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Modes of Communication (Learning Objective 11.3)

Three modes of communication

Oral

Written

Nonverbal

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As we looked at earlier, communication can move through different modes of communication. Certain modes are highly preferred for specific types of communication. We all draw upon oral, written, and nonverbal modes to communicate with others.

13

Oral Communication

Advantages

Speed

Feedback

Exchange

Disadvantages

Potential for distorted message when passed through a number of people

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One communication channel is oral communication or the spoken word. This form of communication is quick, and there is immediate feedback. The exchange given through oral communication has social, cultural, and emotional components. The disadvantage is that the message can be distorted based on the sender and the receiver.

14

Written Communication

Any method that conveys written words or symbols

Letters

E-mail

Instant messaging

Organizational periodicals

Natural language processing

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Written communication can include letters, e-mail, instant messaging, text messaging, social media, and blogs.

 

Through natural language processing, researchers can train algorithms to incorporate the actual words people use in written communication media to measure emotions, moods, personality traits, stress, and other characteristics of employees.

15

Nonverbal Communication

Body language

Body movements

Intonations

Facial expression

Every movement has meaning

Can affect the behavior of communication receivers

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Nonverbal communication is another channel often used in organizations. This can be a nod, a look, or the crossing of arms. It supports other channels of communication and helps to express emotions and feelings.

There are many different types of nonverbal communication that send a lot of messages. Body movement is a common method. Tapping your fingers, for example, can show that you are impatient or nervous. The way you emphasize words can change the way the receiver perceives the message. Your facial expressions can show emotion and express how you feel about an assignment or task.

16

Choice of Communication Channel Learning Objective 11.4

Channel richness

The amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode

Face-to-face is the richest channel

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Channels differ in their capacity to convey information. Some are rich, in that they can handle multiple cues simultaneously, facilitate rapid feedback, and be very personal. Others are lean, in that they score low on these factors. Face-to-face communication scores highest in channel richness because it transmits the most information per communication episode.

17

Choosing Communication Methods

Channel choice depends on whether the message is routine

Oral communication

Written communication

Nonverbal communication

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The choice of channel depends on whether the message is routine. Non-routine messages are likely to be complicated and have the potential for misunderstanding. Managers can communicate effectively only by choosing rich channels.

18

Choosing Oral Communication

Use of oral communication when gauging the receiver’s receptivity is important

But consider:

The receiver’s preference

Pace of work environment

Your speaking ability

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Whenever you need to gauge the receiver’s receptivity, oral communication – face-to-face meetings, telephone calls, video conferencing – is usually the better choice. Also consider the receiver’s preferred mode of communication; some individuals focus on content better in written form and others prefer discussion. The pace of your work environment matters also. A fast-paced workplace may thrive on pop-by meetings.

 

Research indicates the sound of your voice is twice as important as what you are saying.

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Choosing Written Communication

Written communication:

Provides a tangible and verifiable record that can be stored for an indefinite period of time

Message is physically available for later reference

Messages are more likely to be well thought-out, logical, and clear

Grammar mistakes can be problematic

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Written communication is generally the most reliable mode for complex and lengthy communications, and it can be the most efficient for short messages. Written communication is a channel that is tangible and easy to go back to verify. Often when people put down their thoughts and ideas in written format, they are more logical and clearer. However, written communication is more time consuming, doesn’t provide immediate feedback, and might not even be read.

20

Choosing Nonverbal Communication

Contradictions between messages

Leaders’ mixed messages

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It is important to be aware of the nonverbal aspects of our communication – especially the contradictions between messages. We misinform others when we express one message verbally, such as trust, but nonverbally communicate a contradictory message that suggests a lack of confidence.

 

Research suggests that organizational leaders send similar mixed messages when they state that they value gender diversity, yet have male-dominated corporate boards.

21

Information Security

Huge concern

Active monitoring of employees

Engage employees in creation of information-security policies

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Security is a big concern for companies with private or proprietary information about clients, customers, and employees, especially when cloud-based electronic data storage is used. The use of this type of storage is likely to increase, so companies will probably continue to monitor Internet use, emails, and so forth. By engaging employees in creating security policies, companies can reduce anxiety over these monitoring processes.

 

22

Persuasive Communication Learning Objective 11.5

Automatic processing: superficial consideration of evidence and information making use of heuristics

Takes little time and minimal effort

Easy to be fooled

Controlled processing: detailed consideration of evidence and information relying on facts, figures, and logic

Requires effort and energy

Less likely to be fooled

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To understand the process of persuasion, it is useful to consider two different ways in which we process information: automatic and controlled.

 

In automatic processing we give superficial consideration of evidence and information by making use of heuristics. This takes little time and minimal effort. Yet we can be easily fooled.

In controlled processing, we give detailed consideration of evidence and information relying on facts, figures, and logic. This requires effort and energy, but we are less likely to be fooled.

 

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Automatic and Controlled Processing

The choice of processing depends on:

Importance/Interest level

Prior knowledge

Personality

Message characteristics

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Which type of processing will be used? It depends on interest level, prior knowledge, personality, and message characteristics.

 

When people are very interested in the outcome of a decision, they’re more likely to process information carefully.

People who are very well informed about a subject area are more likely to use controlled processing.

If you have a high need for cognition, you are more likely to be persuaded by evidence and facts.

Finally, messages provided through relatively lean channels, with little opportunity for users to interact with the content of the message, encourage automatic processing.

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Barriers to Effective Communication Learning Objective 11.6

Filtering

Selective perception

Choosing the message

Information overload

Emotions

Language

Silence

Communication apprehension

Lying

Communicating in times of crises

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There are a number of barriers to effective communication that can distort the message being sent. Let’s look at a few of those. Filtering is a common barrier where the sender sorts the information shared so that it will be viewed more favorably by the receiver. Selective perception occurs when people selectively interpret what they see based on their own experiences and attitudes. This can then distort the message sent and the message received.

 

Each receiver is in a state of information overload, where the information they are receiving exceeds their capacity to process it all. This leads to barriers to receiving the complete message. Further complicating things are the emotions of the receiver at the time the message is received. The receiver’s emotions will influence their interpretation of the message.

 

When communicating, words will mean different things to different people and can influence the message significantly. Often this causes confusion between the sender and the receiver. Silence itself can be the message, communicating non-interest or inability to deal with a topic.

 

Many people are nervous about oral or written modes of communication and will not be able to clearly communicate because of their anxiety.

Research shows that many people lie, and that the frequency of the lies combined with the difficulty of detecting exactly when it’s occurring also contribute to poor communication.

The final barrier to effective communication can be found in the underlying context: communication becomes more challenging during times of crises.

25

Cultural Factors Learning Objective 11.7

Cultural barriers

Semantics

Word connotations

Tone differences

Differences in tolerance for conflict and methods for resolving conflict

Cultural context

High context culture

Low context culture

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Communication, as we have seen, can be difficult to do effectively. Cross-cultural factors can increase that difficulty. So it is important for managers to understand the culture in which they are working. They should be careful of the words they use to make sure they are translatable and don’t hold double meanings. They need to understand how their tone, body language, or perceptions will differ based on culture.

 

Cross-cultural communication barriers include:

Semantics – words mean different things to different people

Word connotations – words imply different things in different languages

Tone differences – in some cultures tone changes depending on context

Differences in perception – tolerance and methods for resolving conflicts. (Individualist cultures tend to be more comfortable with direct conflict.)

Context is very important to understanding what is being communicated. In low-context cultures, people tend to rely more on words to convey meaning, while high-context cultures will rely more on the whole situation.

26

A Cultural Guide

Know yourself.

Foster a climate of mutual respect, fairness, and democracy.

State facts, not your interpretation.

Consider the other person’s point of view.

Proactively maintain the identity of the group.

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When communicating with people from a different culture, follow these suggestions to reduce misinterpretations.

27

Implications for Managers

Remember that your communication mode will partly determine your communication effectiveness.

Obtain feedback from your employees to make certain your messages are understood.

Remember that written communication creates more misunderstandings than oral communication.

Make sure you use communication strategies appropriate to your audience and the type of message you’re sending.

Keep in mind communication barriers such as gender and culture.

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In summary, good communication will always reduce uncertainty and beats out ambiguity every time. Communication has a better chance of succeeding if the right channel is used, the receiver is a good listener, and feedback is utilized. It is important to remember that even though electronic communication is quicker and easier to use, it can also raise the potential for misunderstanding. Finally, keep in mind that in different cultural contexts things have different meanings, and there are a lot of barriers to overcome for effective communication. Do your homework, and do not rush to conclusions.

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Discussion Questions

Consider your own organization’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. What improvements could have been made in the communication during the crisis? Were all the recommendations on effective messaging followed?

Discuss how bloggers might make their messages more persuasive to their audiences. Provide examples of an effective and ineffective blog.

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29

Copyright

This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work and materials from it should never be made available to students except by instructors using the accompanying text in their classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.

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Essentials of Organizational Behavior

Fifteenth Edition

Chapter 12

Leadership

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Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

 

1

Learning Objectives

12.1 Summarize the conclusions of trait theories of leadership.

12.2 Identify the central tenets and main limitations of behavioral theories.

12.3 Contrast contingency theories of leadership.

12.4 Describe the contemporary theories of leadership and their relationship to foundational theories.

12.5 Discuss the roles of leaders in creating ethical organizations.

12.6 Describe how leaders can have a positive impact on their organizations through building trust and mentoring.

12.7 Identify the challenges to our understanding of leadership.

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What Is Leadership? (Learning Objective 12.1)

Leadership: the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or a set of goals

Trait theories of leadership: focus on personal qualities and characteristics

Predict leadership emergence and effectiveness

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Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals.

The trait theories of leadership focus on personal qualities like those in the Big Five and characteristics that predict two distinct outcomes: leadership emergence and leadership effectiveness. Traits can predict leadership. Traits do a better job predicting the emergence of leaders and the appearance of leadership than distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders. The fact that an individual exhibits the right traits and that others consider the individual a leader does not necessarily mean that person will be an effective leader who is successful at getting the group to achieve its goals.

 

 

3

Personality Traits and Leadership

Big Five Traits

Extraversion has strongest relation to leadership

Conscientiousness and openness to experience also strongly relate to leadership

Dark Triad Traits

Normative scores are optimal

Emotional intelligence (EI) and leadership

EI contributes to emergence of leaders

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Some essential leadership traits include extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, and agreeableness. Research shows that the Dark Triad personality traits are not all bad for leadership. Normative scores on Dark-Triad traits are optimal. Finally, emotional intelligence or EI has been linked with leadership effectiveness, especially with regard to empathy, a core component of EI. Leaders with empathy are able to sense others’ needs, listen to their followers, and read the reactions of others.

4

Behavioral Theories (Learning Objective 12.2)

Behavioral theories of leadership: we can determine leadership effectiveness by leader behavior, and perhaps train people to be leaders

The Ohio State Studies

Initiating structure

Consideration

Cultural differences

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The behavioral theories of leadership focus on the premise that behaviors can be taught and traits cannot, so leaders can be trained.

 

According to the Ohio State studies, initiating structure is when the leader is able to define and structure their role and that of their employees to work toward the goals of the organization. Consideration is the ability of the leader to gain the trust and respect of their followers and to help them feel appreciated for what they do. Both behaviors have proven to be very important in an effective leader.

 

The GLOBE study suggests that there are differences across cultures in the preference for initiating structure and consideration.

 

5

Contingency Theories (Learning Objective 12.3)

Effectiveness is dependent upon situational demands

Fiedler leadership model: effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style and the situation

Least-Preferred Co-worker (LPC) determines leadership style (fixed trait)

Relationship oriented

Task oriented

 

 

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Being an effective leader can be highly contingent upon situation demands.

 

Fred Fiedler developed the first comprehensive contingency model of leadership. In this theory, Fiedler is trying to match the leader to the context. He proposes that leadership style is fixed. So, if the situation demands a charismatic leader and your current leader does not exhibit that style, you need to change leaders.

 

Leadership style can be determined by taking the LPC questionnaire (least preferred co-worker).

 

After the leadership style is determined you can match the leader to the situation. There are three dimensions to finding a successful match. The first situational factor is the leader-member relationship; this ties back to our behavioral studies by looking at the degree of trust and respect employees have for the leader. The second factor is the amount of structure that is embedded in job assignments. The last factor is the amount of influence the leader has over decisions that represent power such as hiring, firing, and rewards.

 

In Fiedler’s model, you need to find a leader to fit the situation or change the situation to fit the leader in order to achieve effective leadership for the organization.

6

Findings from the Fiedler Model (Exhibit 12-1)

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This graph helps to visually determine the situational factors and what type of leader would succeed in this situation. There are eight possible situations in which leaders can find themselves. By matching their LPC score with these eight different situations a leader can see where they will be most effective. For example, categories four through six would be better suited to relationship-oriented leaders because Fiedler proposes that they perform best in moderately favorable situations.

 

Long Description:

A relationship-oriented leader has a constant poor performance during a highly favorable situation; displays a gradual increase followed by gradual decrease in performance, represented by a bell curve. During a moderately favorable situation, and a constant poor performance during a highly unfavorable situation.

A task-oriented leader has a constant good performance during a highly favorable situation; displays a steep decrease as he nears a moderately favorable situation and shows constant low performance through this situation, followed by a steep increase in performance during a highly unfavorable situation.

The data on the contingency dimensions for eight categories falling under the three situations are detailed below:

When the situation is highly favorable:

Leader-member relations are good in categories 1, 2, and 3.

Task structure is high in category 1 and low in categories 2 and 3.

Position power is weak in category 2 and strong in categories 1 and 3.

When the situation is moderate:

Leader-member relations are good in category 4 and poor in categories 5 and 6.

Task structure is low in category 4 and high in categories 5 and 6.

Position power is strong in category 5 and weak in categories 4 and 6.

When the situation is unfavorable:

Leader-member relations are poor in categories 7 and 8.

Task structure is low in categories 7 and 8.

Position power is strong in category 7 and weak in category 8.

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Situational Leadership Theory and Path-Goal Theory

Situational leadership theory (SLT): successful leadership depends on selecting the right leadership style, contingent on the followers’ readiness to accomplish a task

Path–goal theory: it’s the leader’s job to provide followers with information, support, or other resources necessary to achieve goals

 

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SLT acknowledges the importance of followers and builds on the logic that leaders can compensate for their limited ability and motivation.

 

According to path-goal theory, it’s the leader’s job to provide followers with information, support, or other resources necessary to achieve goals. Directive leadership yields greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or stressful. Supportive leadership results in high performance and satisfaction when tasks are structured. Directive leadership is perceived as redundant by employees with high ability or experience.

 

Effective leaders clarify followers’ paths to their work goals and make the journey easier by reducing roadblocks. Directive or supportive leadership does matter to followers’ performance, and leaders need to be aware of their important facilitating role.

 

The effectiveness of leaders depends to a large degree on their followers.

 

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Leader-Participation Model and LMX Theory

Leader-participation model: provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations

Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory: supports leaders’ creation of ingroups and outgroups

Subordinates with ingroup status will likely have higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction

 

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The way the leader makes decisions is as important as what he or she decides. Leader behavior must adjust to reflect the task structure.

 

The leader-participation model provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations.

 

LMX argues that leaders, because of time pressures, tend to establish special relationships with a small group of followers who then become their ingroup. In this capacity, they enjoy a disproportionate share of the leader’s attention, greater trust, and special privileges.

 

 

 

 

9

Similarity with and Interactions Between the Leaders, Ingroup, and Outgroup (Exhibit 12-2)

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Research shows that ingroup members have demographic, attitude, and personality characteristics similar to those of their leaders or a higher level of competence than outgroup members.

 

Long Description:

The details are as follows:

The leader has the following interactions with his subordinates in the ingroup:

Subordinate A: Follower competence

Subordinate B: Positive attitude

Subordinate C: Conscientiousness.

All these interactions are represented via separate dashed unidirectional arrows.

The leader has formal relation with subordinate E in the outgroup and subordinates’ D and F have formal relations between them. All these interactions are represented via solid lines.

The leader is interconnected to a text box that reads: Perceived similarity, liking, trust, and or self-promotion and ingratiation. An interconnection between the above text box and subordinate B is also shown in the diagram.

10

Charismatic Leadership (Learning Objective 12.4)

Charismatic leadership theory: attributions of heroic leadership abilities when followers observe certain behaviors

Vision and articulation

Personal risk taking

Sensitivity toward followers

Unconventional behaviors

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Charismatic leadership and transformational leadership are two contemporary leadership theories that share the view that leaders inspire followers through words, ideas and behaviors.

 

Charisma comes from the Greek word meaning “gift.” When talking about a charismatic leader, one refers to someone with certain gifts or abilities. A charismatic leader will often gain followers through personality rather than through power or authority.

 

There are four key characteristics that are associated with a charismatic leader. The leader must have vision, expressed as an idealized goal. The leader must be willing to take on high personal risk and engage in self-sacrifice to achieve the vision. In doing so, the leader needs to remain sensitive to the feelings and needs of their followers. Throughout the process, the leader may be engaging in behaviors that are perceived as counter to norms, thereby extraordinary.

11

Charisma and Situational Dependency

Charisma is strongly correlated to high performance and satisfaction

Best used when

Environment is uncertain or stressful

Ideology is involved

Most closely associated with upper-level executives

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Charismatic leaders have been shown to be effective but it often depends on the context. This leadership style works best in an environment where it is uncertain and stressful. People are most receptive to charismatic actions when there is a crisis.

12

The Dark Side of Charismatic Leadership

Some leaders:

Use organizational resources for personal benefit

Remake companies in their own image

Allow self-interest and personal goals to override organization’s goals

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There is a dark side to charismatic leadership if the leader misuses their skill set. In the past we have seen situations where leaders have abused company resources and used them for their own benefit. Some leaders with strong charisma have remade companies in their own image and left no plans for succession when they leave.

 

In many cases, the charismatic leader lets their own goals override those of the organization, thus creating a negative situation for the organization.

13

Transactional and Transformational Leadership

Transactional leaders: motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements, allocating rewards and punishment and intervening when necessary

Transformational leaders: inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization

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Transactional leaders motivate their follower towards the goals set by clarifying their roles in the process and what they need to do to reach the goals set.

 

Transformational leaders help followers to look at the bigger picture and commit to the good of the organization, even if it means setting their own goals aside.

 

These two approaches are not contradictory in nature; in fact they can complement each other. Transformational leadership often is built upon transactional leadership. Good leadership will incorporate both transactional and transformational components.

14

Characteristics of Transactional and Transformational Leaders (Exhibit 12-4)

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This exhibit shows characteristics of transactional and transformational leaders.

 

Long Description:

Characteristics of a transactional leader:

Contingent reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments.

Management by exception (active): Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action.

Management by exception (passive): Intervenes only if standards are not met.

Laissez-Faire: Abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions.

Characteristics of a transformational leader:

Idealized influence: Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect and trust.

Inspirational motivation: Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in simple ways.

Intellectual stimulation: Promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving.

Individualized consideration: Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches, advises.

15

Full Range of Leadership Model (Exhibit 12-5)

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This exhibit shows the full range of leadership model. The first three behaviors represent transactional approaches and begin with laissez-faire, which is the most passive. As a leader progresses on the scale, the move is toward more active behaviors. The final four behaviors on the model represent transformational actions. This model shows that as leaders utilize more transformational behaviors, they become more effective.

 

Long Description:

The vertical axis represents a scale that ranges from ineffective to effective and the horizontal axis represents a scale that ranges from passive to active.

Among the transactional leadership models, the graph shows laissez-faire as the most passive and ineffective style, followed by the management by exception. Contingent reward is at a midpoint between active/passive and ineffective/effective.

Among the transformational leadership models, the graph shows all as more active and effective than the transactional models. In order of increasingly active and effective, the transformational models are individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence.

16

How Transformational Leadership Works

Reasons why transformational leadership is effective

Affect or attitudinal mechanism

Motivational mechanism

Identification mechanism

Social exchange mechanism

Justice enhancement mechanism

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Transformational leadership is effective for five reasons.

 

Transformational approaches promoted positive employee moods, emotions, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and feelings of well-being. They motivate employees. They lead employees to personally identify with the leader and the leader’s values and followers. And transformational approaches improve employee fairness perceptions, motivating followers to contribute more and yet trust the leader, team, and organization more.

17

Responsible Leadership (Learning Objective 12.5)

Authentic leaders know who they are, what they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly

Important for explaining team performance

Increases followers’ trust

Sets an example

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Authentic leaders know who they are, what they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly.

 

Authentic leadership is a growing area of research. There are several components that need to be addressed when discussing authenticity in leadership. First, we must look at authentic leaders. These are leaders who engage in reflection and understand who they are and what they believe and bring those two aspects together in their actions.

 

Authentic leadership strongly predicts outcomes such as group performance, OCBs, LMX, satisfaction and trust in the leader, rating of leader effectiveness, follower attitudes and empowerment, and, to a lesser degree, follower creativity, engagement, deviance, turnover intentions, and burnout. Furthermore, research suggests that leaders who “practice what they preach” observe improved follower outcomes because their followers begin to trust them and become more committed to the organization. Authentic leaders can inspire their employees to be better.

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Servant Leadership

Servant Leaders: go beyond their own self-interest and focus on opportunities to help followers grow and develop (serving others)

Characteristics: listening, empathizing, persuading, accepting stewardship, and actively developing followers’ potential.

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Servant leaders focus on opportunities to help followers grow and develop.

 

Characteristic behaviors include listening, empathizing, persuading, accepting stewardship, and actively developing followers’ potential.

 

This is related to followers’ job attitudes, trust in leadership, and LMX perceptions.

19

Positive Leadership (Learning Objective 12.6)

Trust

A psychological state of mutual positive expectation between people

Can be focused on competence or integrity

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Trust is a psychological state of mutual positive expectation between people. That is, it is defined as a state that exists when you agree to make yourself vulnerable to another because you have a positive expectation for how things are going to turn out. Over the years, this has been found to be a foundational characteristic of leadership. When trust is present, followers are willing to do as the leader asks and engage in behaviors that are for the benefit of the organization. In short, followers will do a lot more for a leader they trust than for one they don’t trust.

 

Trust can be focused on competence or integrity.

 

20

Model of Trust in Organizations (Exhibit 12-6)

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Trust is developed over time. The interactions between leaders and followers are part of the development of trust; it goes both ways. Research has shown that the three main characteristics of a leader that instills trust are integrity, ability, and benevolence.

 

These three characteristics are important in developing trust between leaders and followers. If followers perceive these characteristics as strong in their leaders, it will encourage positive behaviors such as risk taking, information sharing, group interactions, and productivity.

 

Trust propensity refers to how likely a particular employee is to trust a leader. Keep in mind though that trust in an employment relationship can be built on very different perceptions from culture to culture.

Time is also important to trust – we come to trust people by observing their behavior over a period of time. It’s important for leaders to demonstrate integrity, benevolence, and ability in situations where trust is important. Demonstrating competence is also important. Finally, using an on-going dialogue rather than top-down communications is important to the development of trust.

If you’ve lost trust, you can sometimes regain it. Apologize if the cause was lack of ability. Regaining trust is much harder, though, if the cause was lack of integrity or deception. Trust can be restored when we observe a consistent pattern of trustworthy behavior by the transgressor.

 

Long Description:

Leader trust worthiness and propensity lead to trust development. This in turn leads to various outcomes:

Risk taking

Information sharing

Group effectiveness

Productivity.

Under leader trust worthiness are characteristics of integrity, benevolence, and ability.

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Mentoring

Mentor: a senior employee who sponsors and supports a less-experienced employee, a protégé

Mentoring programs benefit both mentors and protégés

Benefits of mentoring are primarily psychological

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Successful mentors are good teachers. They present ideas clearly, listen well, and empathize with protégés’ problems. Mentoring relationships, whether formal or informal, serve career functions and psychosocial functions.

 

Research suggests the gains of mentoring are primarily psychological.

22

Leading in Times of Crisis

Leaders emerge in times of crisis

Analyzing the situation

Charismatic leadership can be visionary or crisis-responsive

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During times of crisis, leaders will emerge to bring order and understanding to the chaos. That is, leaders emerge during times of crisis.

 

Analyzing the situation appears to be particularly important, and research demonstrates that leaders managing crisis teams move quickly toward a shared mental model.

 

Of all the leadership styles during times of crisis, charismatic leadership has been studied the most frequently. During times of crisis, charismatic leadership can be visionary or crisis-responsive. The effects of charismatic and transformational leadership can even reverberate after the crisis is over.

23

Challenges to our Understanding of Leadership (Learning Objective 12.7)

Attribution Theory of Leadership

Performance outcomes are attributed to leaders’ actions

Appearance has more to do with leadership than actual accomplishments

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There are many challenges to understanding leadership. The attribution theory states that it is hard to attribute outcomes to leadership and that often leadership is more about performance than outcomes.

 

Perceptions of leaders by their followers strongly affect leaders’ ability to be effective.

 

Attribution theory suggests what is important is projecting the appearance of being a leader rather than focusing on actual accomplishments.

24

Neutralizers of and Substitutes for Leadership (Exhibit 12-7)

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There are many challenges to understanding leadership. The attribution theory states that it is hard to attribute outcomes to leadership and that often leadership is more about performance than outcomes.

 

Substitutes replace the need for a leader’s support or ability to create structure.

 

In addition, you can have an extremely effective leader, but organizational variables can neutralize the leader’s ability to lead and create change, thus rendering the leader irrelevant. That is, neutralizers make it impossible for leader behavior to make any difference to follower outcomes.

 

Long Description:

The details are as below:

Individual:

Experience or training: Relationship oriented, no effect on; Task oriented, substitutes for.

Professionalism: Relationship oriented, substitutes for; Task oriented, substitutes for.

Indifference to rewards: Relationship oriented, neutralizes; Task oriented, neutralizes.

Job:

Highly structured task: Relationship oriented, no effect on; Task oriented, substitutes for.

Provides its own feedback: Relationship oriented, no effect on; Task oriented, substitutes for.

Intrinsically satisfying: Relationship oriented, substitutes for; Task oriented, no effect on.

Organization:

Explicit formalized goals: Relationship oriented, no effect on; Task oriented, substitutes for.

Rigid rules and procedures: Relationship oriented, no effect on; Task oriented, substitutes for.

Cohesive work groups: Relationship oriented, substitutes for; Task oriented, substitutes for.

 

25

Implications for Managers

Ensure that your preferences on the initiating structure and consideration dimensions match work dynamics and culture.

Hire candidates who exhibit transformational leadership qualities and who have demonstrated success in working through others to meet a long-term vision.

Hire candidates who are ethical and trustworthy; train managers in ethical standards.

Seek to develop trusting relationships with followers.

Consider investing in leadership training.

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Leadership is a complex function in an organization but essential for success. Individuals, groups, and organizations all need leaders and there are many factors that define a successful leader. Each organization must assess what they need in their leader in order to be effective.

26

Discussion Questions

Charismatic leadership has a dark side. What can organizations do to minimize this?

 

Discuss the importance of organizations’ leadership rebuilding trust. Why is it so difficult to rebuild trust once broken? How does it negatively impact the organization? Are their implications for recruiting?

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Copyright

This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work and materials from it should never be made available to students except by instructors using the accompanying text in their classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.

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