discussion

  1. Compare and contrast two of the following religious traditions.
    • Confucianism
    • Shinto
    • Daoism

500-650 words, double spaced, 12 point font.

only used the power point

 

Chapter 6

Daoism and Confucianism

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Living Religions

Tenth Edition

1

Learning Objectives (1 of 2)

6.1 Describe the ancient Chinese tradition of ancestor worship and the concept of cosmic balance.

6.2 Identify the basic principles for life in harmony with Dao.

6.3 Outline the practices associated with popular religion and organized Daoism.

6.4 Explain the increasing interest in Daoist practices and philosophy in the West.

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Learning Objectives (2 of 2)

6.5 Outline the major teachings of Confucius.

6.6 Define Neo-Confucianism.

6.7 Discuss the ways in which Confucianism is being adapted to modern concerns in mainland China and other parts of East Asia.

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Simon Man-ho Wong Quote

“It is very hard to find a true sage who through his self-cultivation has perfectly combined himself with Heaven, or the transcendent Dao, or ultimate reality—whatever you may call it.”

Simon Man-ho Wong

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Simon Man-ho Wong, interviewed September 21, 2013.

4

Ancient traditions

Why are ancestor worship and cosmic balance important?

Chinese civilization old and continuous

By 2000 CE, people settled in agrarian villages

Musical instruments

Work in bronze, silk, ceramics, and ivory

Chinese religious ways as old as these works

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Worship and divination (1 of 2)

Prehistoric evidence of ancestor worship

Graves lined with funerary offerings

li: sacred rituals for ancestors

Early worship of spirits

Plants, animals, mountains, stars

Kings and priest made regular sacrifices

Demons and ghosts

Ghosts were ancestors not properly worshiped

Many practices developed to thwart their menace

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Worship and divination (2 of 2)

Rituals of common people unknown

Rituals performed by kings and priests

Sacrifices

Divination

Shangdi: Shang period Lord-on-High

Zhou period: focus shifted from Shangdi to Tian, impersonal power controlling the universe

tian: “Heaven” or “Supreme Ultimate”

“Mandate of Heaven” justified Zhou rule

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Cosmic Balance

qi: impersonal self-generating physical-spiritual substance.

yin: the dark, receptive, “female” aspect of qi

yang: the bright, assertive, “male” aspect of qi

Dao: “way,” the creative rhythm of the universe

Yijing or Book of Changes: a divinization text used to harmonize the cosmic process

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Daoism— the way of nature and immortality

What are the basic principles for life in harmony with Dao?

Beneath the Daoist principles of a simple life is a tradition of strict mental and physical discipline.

“Daoism” is a broad philosophical (literati) tradition.

It also includes popular practices, such as home worship of gods.

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Teachings of Daoist sages (1 of 2)

Tradition attributes the earliest teachings to the Yellow Emperor (r. 2687–2597 BCE).

Dao de jing (“The Classic of the Way and its Power”)

Composed by Laozi (Old Master) during the Zhou dynasty (sixth century BCE).

5,000 words

Oral tradition

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Teachings of Daoist sages (2 of 2)

Zhuangzi (c. 365–290 BCE)

Elaborated on Daoist concepts

Asserted: best to detach from absurd civilization

Dao is “unnamable,” the “eternally real”

Experience the transcendent unity of all things

No “good” or “bad”

wu wei: “actionless action,” no intentional action contrary to the natural flow

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Popular religion and organized Daoism (1 of 2)

What practices are associated with popular religion and organized Daoism?

Invisible spirits are worshiped:

In temples with incense and other offerings

In folk religion with nonvegetarian offerings

feng shui: “geomancy,” allowing things to take their own course

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Popular religion and organized Daoism (2 of 2)

Deities from folk religions have become part of the pantheon.

Jade Emperor is the ruler of heaven.

Daoist masters are divine beings.

Vows are commonly taken for fulfillment of requests.

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Inner alchemy (1 of 2)

Inner alchemy is an internal spiritual practice for the sake of inner transformation, longevity, and immortality.

Within the body is a spiritual micro-universe.

Three treasures:

Generative force (jing)

Vital life force (qi)

Spirit (shen)

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Inner alchemy (2 of 2)

The process is to circulate and transmute jing into qi and then to shen.

This produces the Immortal Fetus, which can leave the body.

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Daoist Sects (1 of 2)

Practices institutionalized in Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE)

Celestial Masters

184 CE: rebellion leading to fall of Han dynasty

Zhang Daoling’s vision: Appointed representative of Dao on earth and given the title “Celestial Master”

Introduced pantheon of celestial deities

Now thriving in Taiwan and Hong Kong

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16

Daoist Sects (2 of 2)

Highest Purity Daoism

Revelations from deceased Lady Wei

365 CE

New deities, rituals, meditative and alchemical methods

Celestial Masters were crude

Not popular, but highly influential

Complete Perfection

Developed from fourth century Numinous Treasure School

Twelfth century

Dominant monastic tradition

Present Daoist canon was compiled in 1445 CE

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Daoism Today

Which Daoist practices are of increasing interest in the West?

All forms of Daoist practice are still actively undertaken.

Chinese temples combine various religions, but liturgy is Daoist.

Bureaucratic obstacles in communist China

Monks and nuns are of equal status.

New Daoist temples and social activities:

Schools

Hospitals

Environmental groups

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Confucianism— the practice of virtue

Which virtue did Confucius feel could save society?

Confucius: Master Kong (sixth century BCE)

Rujiao: the teaching of the scholars

Teachings based on:

Beliefs in Heaven

Ancestor worship

Efficacy of rituals

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Master Kong’s life

Confucius born c. 551 BCE

Determined to be a scholar

Living ascetically, he studied ritual (li)

Returned to society and gained renown as teacher

3,000 disciples

5 Confucian “Classics”

Teachings contained in The Analects

Period of political chaos

Social rites would restore order

Died in 479 BCE

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The Confucian virtues

Codified in the Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE)

ren: “humaneness”

Confucius believed this could save society.

Comprises Chinese character for “two” and “person”

Conveys the idea of relationships

Actions should be motivated by self-improvement, not recognition.

He supported ancestor worship as an extension of filial piety.

junzi: the noble person

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Confucianism after Confucius

What was the significance of Neo-Confucianism?

Mengzi (c. 390–305 BCE), the “Secondary Sage”

Inherent goodness of humanity

Learning is process of coming to understand the Way of Heaven.

Xunzi

Inherent self-centeredness of humanity

li ought to be legally enforced

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The state cult

During Han dynasty:

Teachings of Confucius adopted as the state cult

Traditional Book of Rites and Etiquette and Ritual reconstructed

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Neo-Confucianism

Revival of Confucianism after rise of Buddhism and Daoism in China

“Metaphysical thought” or “the learning of principle”

Zhu Xi (1130–1200 CE)

Developed Confucian school curriculum

Tradition continued for hundreds of years

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Confucianism in the modern world (1 of 2)

How is Confucianism being adapted to modern concerns in mainland China and other parts of East Asia?

Confucian ritual was attacked as one of the “Four Olds” during the Communist Cultural Revolution.

Chairman Mao had been against Confucianism since childhood.

1989: Communist government urged officials to maintain Confucian discipline.

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Confucianism in the modern world (2 of 2)

Communist temple renovation projects

Capitalist Confucianism: business conducted according to Confucian principles

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Confucianism in East Asia

Confucian principles may have aided economic rise of East Asian countries.

Korea adopted Neo-Confucianism as state religion in the 1392.

Confucianism Entered Japan in seventh century and influenced view of emperor.

Hong Kong, Taiwan, and other East Asian countries have made attempts to revive Confucian religious practices.

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Chapter 7

Shinto

Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Living Religions

Tenth Edition

1

Learning Objectives

7.1 Explain the importance of the natural world in the roots of “Shinto.”

7.2 Outline the elements of Confucianism and Buddhism that have been blended with Shinto.

7.3 Discuss the reasons why Shinto has been so closely tied to Japanese nationalism.

7.4 Define what is meant by “Sect Shinto” and give an example.

7.5 Summarize the main aspects of contemporary Shinto.

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Hitoshi Iwasaki Quote

“People come to shrines because these are sacred places from ancient times where people have come to pray. And other people want to go where people are gathered.”

Hitoshi Iwasaki

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Hitoshi Iwasaki, personal communication, April 1990.

3

Shinto

“Shinto” refers to collection of local traditions.

Not a single self-conscious religion

A way of honoring spirits

Japanese religion combining practices

Confucian ethics

Buddhist and Christian understanding of afterlife

Traditional veneration of ancestors and spirits

Religious participation is high, but affiliation to institutional religions is low

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The roots of “Shinto” (1 of 2)

Why is kinship with nature linked with Shinto?

Shinto not easily identified as a religion

No single founder

No orthodox canon of sacred literature

No ethical requirements

Shinto = shin (divine being) + do (way)

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The roots of “Shinto” (2 of 2)

Kojiki (712 CE) and Nihongi (720 CE)

Major chronicles of Shintoism

Myths, historical facts, politics, and literature

Not sacred scriptures

Aimed at conferring spiritual legitimacy on Imperial Throne

Jimmu

First emperor and founder of dynasty

Descendent of goddess Amaterasu

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Kinship with nature

Environment is embodiment of divine

Life organized around honoring natural world

Honoring sun, moon, and lightning in rice cultivation

Mount Fuji: embodiment of divine creation

Threat of industrialization and urbanization

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Relationships with kami

kami: spirits perceived in the natural world

Translations of “god” or “spirit” not exact

“Kami” both singular and plural

A single essence manifesting in many places

Refers to a quality

Kojiki and Nihongi

Amatsu (heavenly) kami organized material world

Stirred the ocean to create Japanese islands

Created Amaterasu (the one who illuminates the sky), the goddess of the sun

kannagara: the way of nature of the kami, another name for Shinto

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Shrines (1 of 2)

No shrines in early Shinto

Buddhist influences in sixth century led to shrines

Inari

The kami of rice

Fox messengers

Hachiman, the kami of war

Ise Shrine

Complex with more than 100 shrines

Constructed in 690 CE

Main shrine to Amaterasu; contains the Sacred Mirror

Imperial family responsible for administration and rituals

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Shrines (2 of 2)

kamikaze: “divine wind,” an aspect of Amaterasu

torii: tall gate-frames

Shrines for public worship

Kami invited to dwell in an object

Shinto is strongly iconoclast (opposed to images of the divine)

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Ceremonies and festivals (1 of 2)

Priesthood traditionally hereditary

Clergy may be priestesses

Rites conducted with great care

Offering to kami made daily

Life-cycle festivals

4 months before birth

32 or 33 days after birth: initiation by the deity

Coming of age: 13 years old

Arranging a woman’s hair: 16 years old

Marriage

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Ceremonies and festivals (2 of 2)

Seasonal festivals

Local kami shrines

New Year

House cleaning

December 31: national day of purification

January 1: watch sunrise, visit friends and family

End of winter (February 3): one throws beans for good fortune

Spring festival (March to April): purification for planting season

June: rites to protect crops

Fall: thanksgiving for harvest

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Purification

Ritual impurity obscures original pristine nature.

Impurity offends kami.

tsumi: the quality of impurity or misfortune

People can be purified through spontaneous movement.

oharai: purification ceremony in which Shinto priests wave branch of sacred sakaki tree

When entering a Shinto shrine, people wash their hands and faces and rinse their mouths.

Water is used for purification in ascetic practices, such as misogi.

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13

Buddhist, Daoist, and Confucian influences (1 of 2)

What elements of Confucianism and Buddhism have influenced Shinto?

Buddhism introduced into Japan in sixth century

Confucian ideals embedded in Japanese ethics

Confucianism used by government to control people in Edo period (1603–1868)

Buddhism and Shinto merged in Heian period (794–1192)

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Buddhist, Daoist, and Confucian influences (2 of 2)

In Kamakura period (1192–1333), Buddhas and bodhisattvas promoted as manifestations of kami

Meiji Period (1868–1912): Shinto nationalist revival

Today, Buddhism practiced alongside Shinto

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State Shinto

Why has Shinto been so closely tied to Japanese nationalism?

Meiji regime: Shinto was basis of government

Since the seventh century, emperor viewed as offspring of Amaterasu

Members of imperial family visited Ise Shrine

Consulted spirits on matters of importance

“State Shinto” administered by government officials, not priests

Nationalists idealized Japan’s ancient “Shinto” past

Japan projected as a large family with emperor as father

Emperor Hirohito (1901–1989): renounced divine status

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“Sect Shinto”

What is “Sect Shinto”?

In rural areas, female shamans fell into trances; kami spoke through them

Oomoto: New movement

Revelations given to Madam Nao Deguchi, an illiterate widow possessed by a kami

Attracted 9 million followers during Meiji regime

New god, “the Great Source”

Today: universalist approach, recognizing founders of other religions as kami

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Shinto today (1 of 2)

What rituals and ceremonies are practiced in contemporary Shinto?

Shinto commonly practiced in Hawai’i and Brazil

Threats to institutionalized Shinto

Reaction to World War II

Elimination of imperial mythology

Desire for modernization

Shinto symbolism of Japanese flag

Shinto shrines

80 million visitors at New Year

More visitors are tourists than believers

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Shinto today (2 of 2)

Codified in the Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE)

Disasters of 2011 caused citizens to urge for more respect for nature

Sumo wrestling: many Shinto elements

Yasukuni Shrine: controversy over honoring war criminals

Shinto shrines: Brazil, Canada, France, North and South Korean, the Netherlands, Taiwan, and the United States

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