Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography (50 pts)

An annotated bibliography is a combination of the words “annotation” and “bibliography.” An annotation is a set of notes, comments, or critiques. A bibliography is list of references that helps a reader identify sources of information. So, an annotated bibliography is a list of references that not only identifies the sources of information but also includes information such as the source’s main argument, important information, or even a critique of the source.

What does this mean? Well, first, an annotated bibliography needs a subject. It’s not just a random assortment of sources. An annotated bibliography is often the first part of a larger project, because it helps you to get a lay of the land, to see what kinds of conversations are happening, and to practice getting them all in one place and explaining how they relate to your topic.

For your annotated bibliography you will be using the topic you have chosen for your final paper  to guide your research. My topic of interest first choice is Hate Crime Laws in South Carolina, USA.


Annotated Bibliographies have two main parts.

1. An explanation of the topic and how the research sources you’ve collected so far contribute to your understanding of the problem (do they present an argument, relevant evidence, etc), and what your tentative argument is at this point. This should be in paragraph form.

a. 250-300 words

2. The citations themselves with their annotations. This means that you provide the citation in MLA format, then underneath that you provide 3-5 sentences briefly outlining what the source is about, its main argument, and how it might be useful in your project.

a. You should include 4 sources, one of which MUST be scholarly.

Jane Smith

Dr. Wickham

Eng 102

15 July 2020

Diversity and Policing in Quincy, MA

Quincy, MA is a medium sized city just south of Boston. One of the things that makes Quincy unique are its demographics. According to the US Census Bureau Quincy’s population is just under 30% Asian. That is a significant portion of the city’s 100,000 person population. Of course, along with this comes an array of amazing restaurants, grocery stores, cultural festivals, and diversity. But one place diversity is sorely lacking is in Quincy’s local government and municipal offices. One particular area that lacks diversity is Quincy’s police force.

With recent renewed scrutiny of local police forces, this lack of adequate representation has been a topic of discussion throughout the city. The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to begin exploring this issue. I had a few important questions I wanted to find information on: is it important that police forces represent the community they serve? Are there legitimate obstacles to recruiting more minority police officers? Have there been any initiatives that the city has tried in order to recruit more diverse officers? How does the community feel about the lack of diversity on the police force?

I looked to both local and scholarly sources in order to find the answers to these questions. What I found was that the overall consensus is that a diverse police force that understands the culture of the community they are policing is a benefit to both police and community. I’ve also seen that a lack of diversity is not isolated to Quincy, but is a national problem. Some information I would still like to find is what the process is for becoming a police officer in Quincy and what outreach programs have been implemented. I might have to investigate more local sources to find that information.


Flavin, Brianna. “Police Officers Explain Why Diversity in Law Enforcement Matters.” Rasmussen University, 10 Dec 2018. studies/blog/diversity-in-law-enforcement/.

This article by Brianna Flavin does a really great job of describing all of the benefits of having a diverse police force. One of the main points is cultural competency – understanding the culture of the people you are policing will help resolve issues more easily and relate to members of the community. The article provides a number of useful quotes from police officers on the ways in which they’ve experienced either cultural miscommunication or the ways in which understanding the community you’re policing helps solve crimes faster.

Leatherby, Lauren and Richard A. Oppel Jr. “Which Police Departments Are as Diverse as Their Communities?” The New York Times 23 Sept. 2020

In this article Lauren Leatherby and Richard A. Oppel Jr. look at the lack of diversity in police forces across the nation. The authors provide useful data about the lack of diversity in different departments, attributing some of the loss of Black officers to recent high profile murders of Black people by police. While I am not focusing on Black officers, the authors go on to provide useful information on some of the factors that tend to prevent minority applicants from applying and the effect on local populations of not having officers who look like them.


Todak, Natalie et al. “Investigating Perceptions of Race and Ethnic Diversity among Prospective Police Officers.” Police Practice & Research vol. 19, no. 5, 2018. pp. 490-504.

In this scholarly article, Natalie Todak et al give an extensive background of the research concerning diversity in police forces. Much of this information will be extremely useful to establish a research based approach to diversity in policing. While this article focuses on prospective Hispanic officers, I think many of their thoughts and experiences will be useful for my essay. It shows how marginalized groups view the police and what inspires or prevents them from wanting to join.


WCVB. “Police departments still largely white in some of Massachusetts’ most diverse cities.” Taunton Daily Gazette. 1 Sept. 2020 white-in-some-of-massachusetts-most-diverse-cities/114534928/

This article from a local paper discusses the lack of diversity as a widespread issue in many diverse cities in the Boston Metro area. They note that Quincy’s police department is 95% white. This article also includes a number of useful quotes from residents talking about how a lack of diversity makes them feel distrustful of the police. The article notes that one issue might be the civil service test potential police officer candidates are required to take.

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