Milestone 1: Data Collection

Milestone 1: Data Collection

Work with your dissertation chair to determine any specific instructions or guidance that he or she may have for you about your topic selection development document.

During the previous dissertation course, you designed your research and defended your dissertation proposal. Now it is time to execute your design and collect data. Remember, you need to follow the design you have proposed. If changes are necessary, be sure to contact your dissertation chair to discuss those possible changes before you make them. Changes can have substantial implications for IRB approval and for your defended dissertation proposal. Additionally, stay in contact with your dissertation chair throughout the data collection. When data collection is done, submit a 2–3-page summary report organized around the following points:

  • Discuss the process. Did data collection proceed as planned?
  • What challenges did you face?
  • How might those challenges impact your research and results?
  • How did you overcome those challenges?
  • How are you managing the data?
  • Are there other issues that need to be resolved?
  • Does anything (method related) need to be adjusted in chapter 1 or 3 on the basis of actual data collection?

Important Note: Dissertation writing is highly recursive. As you write material in one section, you may need to make some adjustments or additions in other sections in order to build a cohesive document. Your collection of data might necessitate some updates to chapters 1 and 3 of your dissertation.

Submission Details:

  • Submit a 2–3-page data collection report.
  • Use APA style in preparing your paper and citing references.Running Head: THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL





    The Role of Strategic Management and Leadership Traits on Employee Performance, Motivation, and Job Satisfaction: Chapters 1 – 3 of the Dissertation


    Submitted to South University


    College of Business


    In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements


    For the Degree of


    Doctor of Business Administration


    Ameki Williams

    South University

    BUS8105E_A-Doctoral Dissertation Proposal

    Dr. Matthew Kuofie




    The research study will focus on the role of strategic management traits on employee performance, motivation, and job satisfaction. A literature review shows that strategic management style affects employees’ performance, determination, and job satisfaction. Pioneer scholars have extensively researched strategic management styles though there is limited literature on the impacts of management traits. The purpose of the study is to illustrate the need for new management approaches in organizational management by comparing the varying effects of management and leadership traits on performance, motivation, and job satisfaction. The existing management styles have weaknesses necessitating the need for more advanced approaches that can address these limitations. The study looks at different management traits to blend them to meet employees’ needs and organizations’ objectives. The researchers will use a situational strategic management theoretical framework to venture into the study. The framework recognizes the need for leadership adaptability based on situations. Stakeholders will use the findings to strengthen organizational management. In this study, researchers are using management, as well as leadership in other areas.








    Table of Contents Abstract 2 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 5 Purpose of the Study 6 Statement of the Problem 6 Theoretical Framework 7 Definitions 7 Research Questions and Hypotheses 8 Scope of the Study 11 Delimitations: 11 Limitations: 11 Assumptions, Risks and Biases 12 Significance of the Study 13 Summary 13 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 15 Definition of Strategic Management 16 The strategy statements 17 Importance of vision and mission statements 17 Conceptual Framework 18 Strategic Decisions in Strategic Management 26 Characteristics and Features of Strategic Decisions in Strategic Management 27 Business Policy 29 Features of a Good Business Policy 29 Importance of Business Policies 30 SWOT Analysis 31 Factors of the SWOT Analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) 31 Advantages of SWOT Analysis 33 Limitations of SWOT Analysis 35 Competitor Analysis 36 Reasons for Doing a Competitor Analysis 36 Strategic Leadership 37 Summary 38 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 40 Research Method 40 Research Design 41 Participants 42 Instrumentation 43 Structured Interviews 45 Research Procedure 45 Data Analysis 46 Protection of Human Rights 47 Delimitations and Limitations 47 Assumptions, Risks and Biases 48 Significance of the Study 49 Summary 49 References 51 Appendices 55 Appendix A: Informed Consent Form for Participants 56 Appendix B: Screening Questionnaire for Participants 57 Appendix C: Permission from Michelin’s HR Manager 58 Appendix D: Message Group Board Post 60 Appendix E: IWPQ Permission 61 Appendix F: MLQ Permission 64 Appendix G: MLQ 65 Appendix H: Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) 67 Appendix I: Sample Size Calculator 70 Appendix J: SurveyMonkey 71 Appendix K: Age Rang and Sex of Managers and Supervisors 72













    The current research study will focus on the impacts of strategic management attributes on employee performance, motivation and, job satisfaction. There are different management styles that management use to influence their followers towards a particular organizational goal. Some of the approaches are transformational, Laissez-Faire, democratic, transactional and autocratic management. Business cultures influence extensively the type of strategic management styles used in organizations. Many scholars in organizational behavior and management have published articles on how management styles affect employee performance, motivation, and job satisfaction. Most researchers have found out that the type of management style utilized in organizations affects employees. Research by Al Khajeh (2018) to determine the role of management on performance found out that management approaches affect organizational performance. Also, researchers have found that transformational and transactional management styles have varying impacts on performance, employee motivation, and job satisfaction (Choi et al., 2017). Employees work well under some leadership styles because their leaders appreciate their contributions at their workplace. In other situations, employees may feel encouraged when leaders reward their top performances.

    ​ Unlike previous studies focused on leadership style in general, this research study will focus on leadership traits. Stakeholders distinguish each of the leadership styles by characteristics that have a significant impact on employee performance. People characterize management by rewarding and punishing instances, while management is by inspiration and follower empowerment (Choi et al., 2017, Lan et al., 2019). There is a need to narrow down to the particular traits to understand their impacts on employees. The study is crucial in the field of organizational management and behaviors in many ways. The study’s findings can help leaders find a proper balance of management traits to create a motivated, performing, and satisfied workforce. Also, the study’s outcomes may help leaders and organizations to incorporate appropriate leadership styles within their operations. Thus, the study will focus on management traits and how they impact performance, motivation, and job satisfaction. The management traits that the study will focus on are visionary, delegation, and reward and punishment.

    Purpose of the Study

    The purpose of the study is to shift overemphasis on management styles to management traits. The second purpose is to inform organizations against restricting strategic management to one management style. In other words, the study will intend to help a visionary leader to use reward and punishment rather than inspiration only. While visionary is a trait for a traditional leader and reward and punishment a character of a transactional leader, leaders can merge them to create a hybrid leadership style based on how they complement each other.

    Statement of the Problem

    There is a literature gap to address leadership traits and their impacts on performance, motivation, and job satisfaction. Most scholarly work provides comprehensive information on leadership styles and their effects on various organizational aspects (Fiaz et al., 2017). However, few of the reviewed academic works discuss the concept of leadership traits. The gap prompts the need for new research that the study will address. The other problem is that while most evidence shows that some leadership styles negatively affect employees, there is no solution from the literature. Some leadership styles only suit the organizational culture or goals and not the employees (Choi et al., 2017). Likewise, some management tactics may fit employees and not the organization’s long-term goals. Consequently, there is a problem to address these challenges. Assessing the management traits and their impacts may lead to a viable solution on balancing organizational culture and employees’ needs within the management framework.

    Theoretical Framework

    ​ The research will apply the situational management theoretical framework. According to situational management theories, management style should change based on the prevailing circumstances (Thompson & Glasø, 2018). Consequently, the model assumes that there is no one suitable management style that applies to all situations. Moreover, the model recognizes the importance of management having the ability to deal with diverse circumstances. In the research study, the researcher will use the theoretical framework to solve the puzzle of establishing fixed management styles within organizations (Thompson & Glasø, 2018). In the research paper, the researcher will use the theoretical framework to solve the puzzle of establishing fixed management styles within organizations (Thompson & Glasø, 2018). Also, the research study will utilize the theoretical framework to show why management styles are needed in most organizations to meet the need of employees and the goals of organizations. The advanced management style is possible by combining various management traits. Hence, the study will focus on management traits and their impacts on performance, motivation, and job satisfaction.


    Leadership: Perspectives from the Front Line has addressed leadership as a critical organizational capability and intervention in what was clearly an ambitious endeavor: a bold attempt to tackle leadership from a Strategic Leadership Value Perspective in as comprehensive a way as possible (Veldsman, 2016).

    Quantitative research: is expressed in numbers and graphs. It is used to test or confirm theories and assumptions. This type of research can be used to establish generalizable facts about a topic.

    Qualitative research : is presented in words. It is used to understand concepts, thoughts or experiences. This type of research enables you to assemble in-depth insights on topics that are not well understood.

    Mixed Method: combines elements of quantitative research and qualitative research in order to answer your research question (George, 2022).

    Research Questions and Hypotheses


    Research Question 1:

    · What is the impact of transformational management on employee motivation and job performance?

    ​The question is essential in determining the specific attributes of transformational management that encourage employees and prompt better performance. Transformational management led their teams towards a common goal through inspiration and encouragement (Lan et al., 2019). Management focus on improving the entire group for organizational success. Each employee participates in the decision-making process at the company. Also, transformational management train their followers for higher responsibilities at the organization and use them as partners to achieve organizational objectives (Lan et al., 2019). The research question will help the researcher to narrow down to leadership-specific attributes and evaluate how they influence employees’ wellness that in turn affects motivation and performance. The study’s purpose is to determine how management attributes affect motivation, employee satisfaction, and performance. Therefore, the answer to the question will help to respond to the question.

    Hypothesis 1 Null: There are no impacts of transformational management on employee motivation and job performance.

    Hypothesis 1 Alternant: There are impacts of transformational management on employee motivation and job performance.

    Research Question 2:

    · Do rewards and punishments affect employee’s motivation, performance, and job satisfaction?

    · Some management styles incorporate punishments (right ups, such as no bonuses, granted overtime, and granted incentives, etc.), rewards (such as a raise, extra overtime, promotions, etc.) to control employees. Most literature in organizational behavior focuses much on management styles and fails to narrow down to the specific management traits. Reward and punishment are practiced by transactional management. Top performers are rewarded while poor performers are punished. Punishments include receiving lower salaries based on their performances (not making production, or meet their quotas), job dismissal, or receiving inferior positions (such as a supervisor, or manager’s position) with lower pay. Transactional management tend to focus much on individuals rather than a group (Wahyuni et al., 2019; Pishgooie et al., 2018). They are more concerned with the planning and execution processes, and often, rely on the established structures to exert influence on their followers. The research question will help me to delve deeper into management attributes that affect overall employee motivation, performance, and job satisfaction. The response to the question is pivotal in answering the overall research question on the impacts of management attributes on employee performance, motivation, and job satisfaction.

    Hypothesis 2 Null: Rewards and punishment do not affect employees’ performance, motivation, and job satisfaction.

    Hypothesis 2 Alternant: Rewards and punishment do affect employees’ performance, motivation, and job satisfaction.


    Research Question 3:

    · Does delegation affect employee motivation, job satisfaction, and performance?

    Some management styles embrace role delegation while others do not. Delegation is assigning roles to other team members for various reasons. The question aims to create an understanding of how the attribute of rile delegation affect motivation, satisfaction, and performance (Pishgooie et al., 2018). Employees may feel valued when they receive more roles at their workplace in some instances while others may feel demotivated due to increased roles. Either way, delegation will affect motivation, performance, and job satisfaction. Some management styles that embrace delegation are transformational and charismatic. The findings on the question will help to determine how leadership traits affect employees’ wellness. These findings will align study purpose that aims at finding the relationship between management traits and motivation, performance, and job satisfaction.

    Hypothesis 3 Null: Delegation does not motivates employees, leads to job satisfaction and better performance.

    Hypothesis 3 Alternant: Delegation does motivate employees, leads to job satisfaction and better performance.


    Research Question 4:

    · What are the impacts of a visionary management on motivation, employee performance, and job satisfaction?

    Visionary management is one with a clear picture of how the future should look. Visionary managers are strategic and influence their followers to undertake bold steps for a better future. The visionary trait is associated with charismatic and transformational management styles (Lan et al., 2019). The question is essential for the study, because it will help in examining how various management traits affect employee performance, motivation, and job satisfaction.

    Hypothesis 4 Null: There are no impacts of visionary leaders on motivation, employee performance, and job satisfaction?

    Hypothesis 4 Alternate: There are impacts of visionary leaders on motivation, employee performance, and job satisfaction?


    Scope of the Study


    The study will focus on the relationship between various management traits and their impacts on motivation, job satisfaction, and employee performance. The research study will consider the strengths and weaknesses of key management traits such as reward and punishment and how they affect employees and overall performance. Further, the research will examine how management and organizations can reduce the risks associated with management traits by combining strategic management characteristics from various management styles. The study focuses on management traits because scholars have covered extensively on management styles.


    One of the limitations in conducting the study is resources and time. Comprehensive research will require enough time and money to actualize and, that is not possible for this research study. Secondly, the study will include a smaller sample size which limits its credibility. The researcher’s plan to overcome these limitations is to manage my time, and recourses to where the researcher would make sure that he/she will have the proper recourses to complete my research in a timely manner. The researcher will overcome the challenge of time and resources by properly planning for the available time and resources prior conducting the study. The researcher will solve the issue of credibility by collecting data first hand through interviews and questionnaires and observing as the respondents provide information.

    Assumptions, Risks and Biases

    Assumption refers to conditions under which the statistical techniques utilized will lead to valid results. In this context, the researcher assumed that the employees involved in the study would cooperate by providing honest and complete answers during interview sessions and when responding to questionnaires. Additionally, the sample was assumed to be true representation of study population as they had similar characteristics.

    Biases occur when the entire research process is skewed to achieve a specific outcome. One of the biases that can occur in research is design biases which relates to the structure and method of the research. Design bias is contributed by the preferences of the researcher instead of selecting research design that work effectively for a certain context. In our context, it is worth noting that there is risk of biases from the interviewer as he can introduce his disposition or relation with the participants. There is also a risk of biased questions in terms of negative questions or leading questions during the interview and in the questionnaires (such as rather the participants are male or female, black or white, religious or none) Predetermined questions will be used for the structured interview. This will ensure consistency among employees and managers drawn from different organizations (Formplus, 2020). The uniformity of questions will prevent biases during the research process.

    Significance of the Study

    Managers of different companies will benefit from the finding of this study because in a globalized world, the strategic management influence the state of performance appraisal system. They will understand different strategic management practices and this will help them to improve performance of appraisal system. Management of companies will get better understanding of the relationship between strategic management in organizations and the performance appraisal system. This will help them to obtain more information on how to establish strategic management practices that will improve performance appraisal system in their organizations.

    The findings of this study will also be beneficial to academicians and scholars as it will provide them with relevant literature on strategic management and performance appraisal. It will highlight the relationship between strategic management in organizations and the performance appraisal system.


    Summarily, the study will focus on the impacts of management traits on performance, employee motivation, and job satisfaction. A situational theoretical framework will be applied in the study. The purpose of the research study is to help management, and organizations to adopt hybrid management styles rather than depending on the existing techniques which may not suit the changing workforce and business environment. The limitations in the study include inadequate time and resources. When conducting the study, the assumption is that management traits have similar impacts on all employees and that organizations will embrace the study’s findings. In this study, I am using management, as well as leadership in other areas.





























    Strategic management entails finding and describing the methods that managers might employ to boost their company’s performance and acquire a competitive advantage. A competitive advantage is defined as an organization’s profitability exceeding that of all other firms in its industry (Schmuck, 2020). Preparing for both anticipated and unforeseeable occurrences is the essence of strategic management. It is relevant to both small and large businesses as even the smallest businesses face competition and can gain a competitive edge over time by developing and implementing effective strategies. Employees benefit from strategic management because it gives them a broader perspective on how their job fits into the organization’s overall plan and how it relates to other members of the business team. It is the capacity to manage people in a way that maximizes their potential to fulfill business goals (Kombate et al., 2021). Therefore, the main objective of this work is to review the literature on the main concepts of strategic management in an organization. The review of literature is divided into the following parts; (1) the definition of strategic management, (2) the process of strategic management, (3) the components of strategic management, (4)strategy statements, (5) importance of vision and mission statements, (6) Conceptual framework (8) summary

    According to a study conducted by Annah Mumbua (2019), strategic management plays a great role in the performance of employees. Strategic management allows organizations to undertake performance appraisals to identify employees’ strengths and weaknesses and provide room for appropriate adjustments. A study conducted by Stacey Mumbua (2014), showed that training and development, recognition and reward, a conducive working environment and leadership influence employees’ personal development, creativity, and innovativeness. Reward and recognition acts as a strategic motivational strategy which is commonly applied by South Eastern Kenya Regional Universities to enhance employee job satisfaction, improve their productivity and enhance employee retention. Good working conditions and leadership strategies improves on communication and reduces employees’ conflicts.

    Definition of Strategic Management

    Managers employ strategy to accomplish one or more of the organization’s goals. According to another definition, “a general direction defined for the company and its numerous components toward obtaining a desired state in the future.” “Strategy is the result of a comprehensive strategic planning process.” In order to attain present goals, a strategy requires merging organizational operations as well as utilizing and allocating finite resources within the organizational environment. Remember that initiatives are not made in a vacuum and that any action taken by a firm is likely to generate a reaction from those that are affected, such as opponents, customers, employees, or suppliers, while formulating a strategy.

    Strategy is critical now that it is hard to anticipate the future. Even if they lack perfect foresight, businesses must be prepared to put up with the unpredictable occurrences that make up a business environment (MSG, 2021). It also considers long-term trends rather than daily operations, such as the likelihood of future breakthroughs, new products, new production methods, or new markets. Finally, when establishing a strategy, the expected behavior of customers and competitors is considered. Employee behavior is predicted by employee management practices. As a result, a company’s strategy is a very well road plan. It establishes the general mission, vision, and strategy of an organization (Kombate et al., 2021). A strategy’s purpose is to maximize an organization’s strengths while minimizing the strengths of competitors.

    The strategy statements

    The strategy statement sets the long-term strategic direction and broad policy directions of an organization. It includes:

    1. Strategic intent: it is the purpose and the reason why there is a strategy statement, and it continues to exist to maintain a competitive advantage. It helps the management of focus on the priorities of an organization; hence it influences the resource potential of an organization and core competencies to be achieved.

    2. Mission Statement: it is the statement of the role by which an organization intends to serve its stakeholders. Provides a framework within which strategies are formulated as it describes reasons why an organization is operating,

    3. Vision: it identifies where the organization intends or wants to be in the future and where it should be when it meets all the needs of the stakeholders.

    4. Goals and objectives: a goal is desired future state that an organization tries to achieve or a period. What must be done by an organization is specified by goals making mission and vision more prominent and concrete. On the other end, objectives are defined as goals to be achieved by an organization.

    Importance of vision and mission statements

    The organization must have a lucid, coherent, and meaningful vision and mission statements to return more than double the numbers for the benefit of shareholders. Mission and vision are very beneficial to an organization in many ways, and they include:

    • They provide unanimity of purpose to organizations and make the staff feel a sense of belonging and identity.

    • They spell out the context in which an organization operates by providing workers with a tone to be followed in the workplace.

    • They serve as focal points for employees to identify themselves with an organization’s activity. It also gives every individual in an organization a sense of direction as well deterring those who do not wish to follow them from taking part in the activities of an organization.

    • Help in translating the objectives of an organization into work structures and assign tasks to organization elements.

    • Specify the main structure utilized by an organization when translating objectives into actionable cost, performance, and time-related measures.

    • Provide a philosophy of existence to employees as well as provide the necessary meaning for work in an organization.

    Conceptual Framework

    Strategies management requires an organization to set objectives, analyze the actions of competitors, evaluate its current strategies and confirm them, review internal structure and implement the approved strategies (Pavlák & Písař, 2020). Strategic management can be either be prescriptive or descriptive. Prescriptive strategic management is when an organization develops strategies in advance (Fuertes et al., 2020). Descriptive strategic management is when an organization puts strategies into practice only when needed (Fuertes et al., 2020). However, both descriptive and prescriptive management use management theory and practices.

    Therefore, in this study, prescriptive strategic management will be used as a strategic management approach. The objectives of organizations will have to be defined in advance, and the main elements developed before the strategy begins. An organization has to intentionally plan and formulate a deliberate, rational strategy according to its intentions. The approach follows an authoritative management style as well as a top-down hierarchical structure. The process in this approach is linear, i.e., from strategic analysis to development and then to implementation (Fuertes et al., 2020). The approach is an orderly, deterministic, rational, and systematic process. Besides, the prescriptive approach is being used together with a systematic review of the literature. The systematic review of literature is carried out as an appropriate methodology to produce a reliable knowledge inventory. The searching process is limited to published literature, including books, journals, and conference proceedings.

    Strategic Management

    Strategic management is a common factor in all competitive organizations. It refers to setting goals, procedures, and objectives to make an organization more competitive. (Bryson & George, 2020) defines strategic management as an approach to strategizing by public organizations or other entities that integrates strategy formulation and implementation, and typically includes strategic planning to formulate strategies, ways of implementing strategies, and continuous strategic learning. The authors assert that strategic management is a tool used by organizations to have a competitive advantage, achieve their goals or add value to their products. Strategies can also reduce operational costs in organizations. Strategic management is pivotal to organizations that link aspirations and capabilities. Therefore, strategic management applies only to organizations that plan to achieve certain goals in the long term which forces them to streamline their goals through strategy.

    Strategic management is affected by various organizational factors such as knowledge management, technology, and leadership. Organizational leaders must be able to set goals and lead their employees towards achieving the set goals. (Morton et al., 2018) researched on building and maintaining strategic agility as part of the agenda for IT executive leaders. According to the authors, organizations are advised to generate three high-level capabilities to achieve strategic agility: strategic sensitivity, resource fluidity, and leadership unity (Morton et al., 2018). Leadership unity is one of the fundamentals in IT organizations as determines whether organizations’ strategies succeed or not. The study found that IT executives must communicate and elaborate on their strategies with employees. In strategic management, the leadership communicates the goal and strategies to the followers to create awareness about the organization’s future focus (Morton et al., 2018). Moreover, they ensure that employee activities are aligned to organizations’ needs. Regular and effective communication from the leadership ensures exchanges of viewpoints as well as transparent and mutual exchanges of ideas that break up structures that hinder effective strategy implementation. Organizational leaders also manage worries that may occur within the organizations during strategic management (Morton et al., 2018). Leaders who fail to properly manage conflicting issues during strategy implementation cause the failure of strategies.

    Performance Appraisal System

    A performance appraisal system denotes the process of identifying, evaluating, and developing the work performance of employees to help in the attainment of organizations’ goals and objectives. Scholars have published many articles on appraisal systems, the role of HR in developing an appraisal system, the use of data analytics in HR, and how employee assessment contributes to job satisfaction, improved performance, and job satisfaction. (Sharma & Sharma, 2017) researched on HR analytics and performance appraisal system using a conceptual framework for employee improve performance. Their study aimed to identify the role of human resource (HR) analytics on employees’ willingness to improve performance (Sharma & Sharma, 2017). They explored the factors that exist within HR which affect employees’ willingness to improve performance. The scholars developed a conceptual framework along with propositions by integrating both academic and practitioner literature in HR analytic and management improvement (Sharma & Sharma, 2017). The findings showed that HRB analytics positively affected employees’ perceived accuracy and fairness. The increase in perceived accuracy and fairness, in turn, resulted in job satisfaction, job motivation, and improved performance (Sharma & Sharma, 2017). Thus, organizations should adopt data analytics to better understand employees’ perceptions of the evaluation system.

    (Sepahvand et al., 2020) researched on how to improve nurses’ organizational commitment by participating in their performance appraisal process. The study aimed to promote the nurses’ commitment by engaging them in the improvement of the performance appraisal system. They conducted the study using a participatory action research design from arch 2015 to February 2018 with 39 participants comprising of critical care nurses and care managers in Social Security. The study’s setting was in Iran and the data was collected using organizational commitment and job satisfaction questionnaires, focus groups, semi-structured interviews, and the Delphi technique (Sharma & Sharma, 2017). The researchers found three dominant themes; inappropriate performance appraisal systems, inefficient instruments, and unskilled evaluators. Also, they discovered significant differences between organizational commitment and job satisfaction with the performance appraisal process before and after the change in the appraisal process (Sharma & Sharma, 2017). The findings highlight those employees’ involvement in revising and improving the process of their performance appraisal leads to higher commitment. Thus, (Sepahvand et al., 2020) and (Sharma & Sharma, 2017) conquer that appraisal system and how they selected and improved affect employee performance, motivation, and job satisfaction which in turn affects commitment. The two studies are crucial in understanding the role of strategic management in performance appraisal systems because strategies are all about performance and employee wellness.

    The Process of Strategic Management

    A business must follow a set of practices for strategic planning to be effective and fruitful. The steps in the strategic management process are as follows:

    · Choosing a Course of Action: The very first phase requires the organization to have a clear vision and direction. Before creating strategies, a business should determine its short- and long-term objectives. There will be no clarity on systems and processes unless the organization outlines its objectives ahead of time.

    · Resource Evaluation: In order to reap strategic management benefits, a company must first organize its resources to carry out specific tasks. For example, someone who excels at marketing may struggle to manage the company’s primary relations. As a result, management must assess its resources and select the most appropriate one for each process.

    · Framing Strategies: After deciding the proper resource for each step, the organization has developed an action plan for accomplishing the goal. The elements required to effectively achieve the set objectives are included in this strategic planning. At every level of the process, analysis, assessment, and supervision aid the business in resolving difficulties, whether internally or externally. Putting Plans into Action: Following the establishment of a strategy based on the organization’s goals, the next step is to put it into action. Every company’s human resources, from entry-level staff to supervisors, must be trained to ensure that everyone understands the procedure. It will put core competencies to work within the organization to provide the greatest results possible

    · Evaluating Efficiency: The process concludes with a review of the techniques. Management can recognize each individual’s efforts during the strategy design and implementation phase by looking into each aspect of the business (Rosic, 2014). Performance appraisal methodologies, which are critical business components, can assist the organization in recognizing these efforts. The preceding procedure can be divided into four primary steps, which are as follows:

    1. Environmental Scanning

    It is the possession and utilization of information about occasions, patterns, and trends, relationships within an organization’s internal and external environments. This scanning entails looking in between the forces of the internal and external environment that works around an organization. It, therefore, examines the threats and opportunities available that can have an impact on the organization. The organization must be in a position to identify the opportunities and utilize them at the same time minimizing the threats around the organization so that it may not be an advantage to other surrounding organizations. Environmental scanning entails two types:

    Internal analysis environmental scanning entails the scanning of the environment within an organization. It is important because it enables the organization to assess the relationships between the employees amongst themselves, employees and the managers, and also the relationship among shareholders in a given organization. This will help to identify strengths within an organization and weaknesses so that proper measures are taken to strengthen where there are weaknesses.

    External analysis environmental scanning entails the scanning of the outside environment and factors that may influence the growth of an organization. It looks at the intermediate environment, which consists of its competitors, and looks at the ways to enable them to be ahead of their competitors. The national environment consists of the national framework that may influence the advantage of an organization, and that will help it stabilize its growth. The macro-environment is the global environment that can influence the growth of an organization in terms of ideas, technology, markets, and external forces from the world.

    2. Strategy Formulation

    It is a process in strategic management that involves choosing the most appropriate course of action for the realization and organizational goals and objectives in achieving the organizational vision. The setting of organizational objectives is the first step in strategy formulation. This entails setting the general goals and aims of the organization that is set to be achieved by the end of a given period of a certain operation. Setting objectives enables the organization to know where they are and where they are heading to. Setting objectives is done after the resources and all materials that will be used to achieve the goal of the organization have been assessed because they will influence the decisions. The next step is evaluating the organizational environment where the organization is set to check out the factors that influence their growth as well as that of their competitors. It, therefore, analyze the threats and opportunities that will enable them to keep their competitors on the track.

    Setting a quantitative target is the third step where an organization sets a target about the general objectives of the organization. After setting quantitative targets, the organization aims in context with divisional plans, which evaluate the contribution of each subdivision in an organization to achieving the set objectives. The fifth step is the performance analysis anywhere which analyses the progress of each department to present and future expectations of the organization. Then regions are made concerning the progress. The ultimate step of strategy formulation is the choice of strategy where the best choice is chosen regarding the organization’s achievements, limitations, potential, and internal opportunities.

    3. Strategy implementation

    It is the translation of chosen strategy into organizational actions to achieve the goals and objectives of an organization. Organizational structure allocates special value when coming up with tasks and roles for the workers (MSG, 2021). The organization then states how the task and roles can be correlated so as to maximize quality, efficiency, and customer satisfaction which are the pillars of competitive advantage. However, when it comes to motivating employees, the organizational structure is not sufficient; hence organizational control system should be included. The organization control system equips managers with motivational incentives for staff members and feedback on staff and organizational performance. Strategies that are excellently formulated will fail if the process of implementation is not followed correctly. Lastly, strategy implementation poses a threat to individuals in the workplace, especially with the change in power and status roles in the organization.

    4. Strategy evaluation

    Evaluation of strategy is very important, just like the strategy formulation, because it focuses on the effectiveness of the primary plans in attaining organizational goals. Strategic evaluation is the final phase of strategic management, and it is in this phase that managers assess the appropriateness of their current strategy. Strategy evaluation is very crucial, and its significance lies in its capacity to coordinate the tasks performed by departments, managers, and groups of employees through control performance. Besides, evaluation is important because it is used in developing inputs for new strategic planning, appraisal, and reward, feedback urge, strategic validity, and development of strategic management process. Therefore strategic evaluation can be done by fixing a benchmark of performance, measurement of performance, analyzing variance, and taking corrective action.

    Components of Strategic Management

    Strategic Decisions in Strategic Management

    In strategic management, strategic decisions are typically the decisions concerned with the whole environment in which the organization/firm operates, the entire resources and all the individuals who make up the organization, and the interface that connects the two entities (Helfat, 2021). A strategic decision is mostly about selecting the most promising path to success for the organization. An example is that when you are starting a new company/ business, you will need to consider factors such as the target market, time, resources, capital, and location. Most part of the strategic management process is accomplished through thorough strategic decision-making. Apart from strategic decision-making being very crucial and vital for an organization; it is also very critical and complex.

    Strategic decisions are made by the organization’s strategists and the highest-level management in the company. While strategic decisions are accomplished by the top-level management, the operational decisions within the company are made and executed by the low-level managers. These strategic decisions are directly related to the overall contribution of the company’s general objectives and goals. Strategic decisions determine the direction, the state, and the direction of the organization (Madsen, 2018). By putting clear, the company’s main objectives and goals, the company will be able to align the shorter-term plans with the deeper, much more important goals.

    Strategic decisions, therefore, have an intention of providing a very reasonable and highly competitive advantage over other companies and trying to make changes to the general scope and the direction of the company. These decisions are very significant for the survival of a company. Making strategic decisions for strategic problems will significantly influence both internal and external environmental factors affecting the company.

    Characteristics and Features of Strategic Decisions in Strategic Management

    1. Concerned with Scope of an Organization’s Activity

    Strategic decisions are directly concerned with the scope of a specific organization/company’s day-to-day activities. The activities are specific to an organization in that they vary from organization to organization. A particular company may have its daily activities focused and limited to one product. In contrast, other companies may focus on more than one activity/ product (a wide range of products and services). The scope of an organization’s general activities is essential to the company’s strategic decisions.

    2. Measure up the Activities of the Company with the External and Internal environment

    Strategic decisions involve the matching of the company’s organization to both the internal and external environment where it is located. Therefore, before a strategic decision is implemented, all the alternative strategies are formulated, evaluated, and analyzed regarding the environment. The best strategy is then executed by the company’s management.

    3. Measuring up the Activities with the Resource Capability

    Strategic decisions are also involved in matching a company’s general activities to its resource capability. The vital decisions made by the company are not only based on the threats/ challenges and opportunities of the environment but also on the resource capability of the company. Various resources such as financial resources, human resources, raw materials, and informational resources are considered the organization’s resource base. In strategic decision-making, the resource base of the company should match the activities and operations of the company.

    4. Strategic Decisions Affect Operational Decisions

    It is very obvious that strategic decisions directly affect and influence the operational decisions of a company. As strategic decisions are made by the top-level management in a company, they are the basis for coming up and formulating new operational decisions. Any change or alteration in the strategic decisions will directly affect the operational decisions, which will correspondingly change.

    5. Strategic Decisions will affect the Overall Nature and Magnitude of Strategies.

    The overall strategies will be greatly influenced by the expectations put up by the strategic decision-makers in the company. The values and expectations stated by the leading strategists and the general managers have a great influence on the nature and magnitude of the strategies (Steiss, 2003). Therefore, the managing director, general managers, and the main decision strategists have a direct impact on the nature and extent of strategies.

    6. Influences and Affects the Long-Term Direction of the Organization

    Since strategic decisions are very vital for a company, the possibility of the decisions affecting the long-term direction of the company is very high. As the strategic decisions are made and formulated to help the company achieve its short and long-term objectives, they determine the future and long-term direction of the company (Steiss, 2003).

    Business Policy

    Every single business around the world has a specific method of operation. Written business policies assist any organization in maintaining consistency and quality in its operations and ensure proper management of the company. When put into use, a business policy will set up a standard way of how the company delivers products or services to the market.

    Therefore, business policies are defined as the guidelines that are developed by a specific company to control and govern its actions and tasks. These policies clearly explain the limits where the decisions made must be under/within. It allows the low-level management to deal with and make decisions on issues without necessarily involving or consulting the high-level management whatsoever.

    Features of a Good Business Policy

    · Specific: a business policy should be clear to ensure that the implementation is consistent and reliable to the company. An example of a specific feature is, “Employees should not eat in the office during work hours.”

    · Clear: A business policy should not be ambiguous. It should be written clearly and in an easily understood language for every individual in the business space to understand.

    · Uniform: The policy should not be biased. It should be standardized for every individual in the company, from the general manager to the cleaners and plant employees. A good example is, “Anyone entering the chemical laboratory must wear a gas mask.”

    · Appropriate: A business policy should consider the important goals and objectives of the company. It should be relevant and criticize anything that is not in terms of the company’s goals and needs.

    · Simple: the business policy should be detailed yet simple. Everyone within the organization should be able to comprehend and understand the business policy. The use of simple grammar is recommended to be simple and straightforward,

    · Stable: When it comes to decision implementation, the business policy should be very stable and provide a basis for decision making. There should be no indecisiveness about following the business policy when making major decisions.

    Importance of Business Policies

    Business policies influence various factors such as legal issues, employee satisfaction, and a great public image. When it comes to great expectations in a business, such as decision making, business policies play a key role in ensuring everyone in the organization, from the general manager to the plant workers, are on the same page. These policies may include safety policies, hiring policies, and anti-discrimination policies. All these policies play a vital role in creating a positive work environment. Some of the most significant benefits of business policies include:

    1. Establishing a Corporate Culture

    Expectations are immediately set when business policies are clearly written down as a definite plan. Since a clear business policy is stated and set up, corporate culture will be established within the organization. Every individual within the organization will operate on the basis of what to do, what not to do, and how to act. Employees given a clear business policy tend to perform much better and are more effective than the employees not given the business policy.

    2. Employee Training

    Employers should hold regular and frequent training sessions to review the company’s policies. This would put all the employees on their toes and updated, making them more effective. Moreover, regular employee training would not only help the business from being out of legal trouble but the employee as well.

    SWOT Analysis

    SWOT is typically an acronym that is used in place for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. SWOT analysis is a framework that is used to evaluate an organization’s competitive position and help them in developing strategic planning (Benzaghta et al., 2021). SWOT analysis assesses internal factors (strengths and weaknesses) and external factors (opportunities and threats), as well as the current, emerging, and future issues and potentials. SWOT analysis is one of the most renowned tools for audit and analysis of the overall strategic position of a company; it is designed to come up with a realistic and factual view of the strengths and weaknesses of a specific company. It aims at identifying the strategies that will build a clear business model that will be in line with the company’s capabilities.

    In simpler words, SWOT analysis is the base for measuring and evaluating the internal potential and challenges/limitations and the probability of opportunities and threats outside the company. This analysis covers both the negative and positive factors in the internal and external business environment. A properly and consistently done research on the company’s environment assists greatly in giving definite forecasting and predictions on the changing trends in the market.

    Factors of the SWOT Analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats)

    1. Strengths: strengths are the traits/ factors that help all individuals in an organization to achieve the organizational objectives and goals. Strengths are the basis on which the company may succeed and maintain its success throughout the years. These strengths are categorized into two major parts; tangible and intangible strengths. Strengths are what you are great in or what you have good knowledge in. it also includes the qualities and skills that your employees possess. The strengths of a given company will also include the different factors that help the organization remain consistent with its success.

    In obvious cases, strengths in a business are the beneficial aspects that favor the growth of the business. They are the capabilities of a business that distinguish the business from other companies. Business capabilities may include process capabilities, financial resources, goods and services, availability of raw materials, brand loyalty, and human competencies. Therefore, some of these strengths that an organization may have are a lack of debts, having committed and loyal employees, a variety of products, broad financial resources, and loyal customers.

    2. Weaknesses: Weaknesses, as the name suggests, are the bottlenecks that try to prevent a business from achieving its general objectives and goals. These weaknesses affect the growth and success of a business. Considering the various weaknesses that negatively affect the growth and success of a business, they are basically factors that do not meet the required standards as they should.

    Some of the major weaknesses that may affect an organization include less/ poor research, poor development facilities, improper or less quality machinery, less variety of products, lack of skilled employees, disloyal employees, and high debts, among others. For the success of an organization, these weaknesses ought to be eliminated or minimized. For example, an organization may offer regular training to its employees to ensure that they have high-quality skills in their respective fields.

    3. Opportunities: opportunities are one of the external factors in the SWOT analysis. Opportunities tend to contribute greatly to an organization’s success. These opportunities are exposed by the environment within which the organization operates. An organization may take advantage of certain conditions in their environments and capitalize on them to ensure the organization is more profitable and more successful. By capitalizing on these opportunities within their environments, organizations will acquire a competitive advantage over their competitors.

    Whenever an opportunity arises, an organization should not waste time but grab the opportunity and work on it. An organization may even hire professionals who will look for gaps and niches in the market to spot a favorable opportunity. Some of the opportunities that may be available within the organization’s environment include issues such as competition, market, technology, government, and industrial opportunities. A real-life example of an opportunity is the rise in demand for telecommunication. This rise in demand is a great opportunity for new companies to venture into the telecommunication industry and give stiff competition to the existing companies.

    4. Threats: Threats will be visible in a situation where the conditions of the external environment endanger the growth and profitability of an organization. Threats are considered uncontrollable, and in case an organization is vulnerable to a certain threat, its stability and survival are often questioned. Some examples of threats that an organization may face include a continuous change in technology, unrest among the employees, stiff and increased competition, price wars in the market, and reduction in general profits in the industry.

    Advantages of SWOT Analysis

    SWOT analysis is very influential in the formulation of business strategies. It is an essential and robust tool that has proven to be a great help to many organizations. Performing a SWOT analysis is very simple and can be done by any person who understands how your business works.

    1. Cost-Effective

    SWOT analysis is very beneficial to the company in that it is not costly or even sometimes does not cost the company. One does not require immense training activities or any technical skill for them to conduct a SWOT analysis. The company can use one of its own individuals who has significant knowledge of the business to perform the SWOT analysis and would not require any external consultant.

    2. Wide Range of Applications

    A SWOT analysis covers a wide range of applications and can be used in conducting strategic research, strategic planning, and competitive analysis. SWOT analysis can cover these applications since it is able to identify all the environmental factors that either play a favorable or unfavorable role in any specific objective.

    3. Promotes Discussion

    It is very crucial that you have all your employees on the same page. Therefore, SWOT analysis promotes discussion among the organization’s individuals. Every individual in the company plays a vital role in driving the company to achieve its objectives. Having frequent conversations on the strengths and weaknesses of a company will help to identify any threats and make sure that the company capitalizes on any opportunity coming its way.

    4. Provides Visual Overview

    The final representation of a SWOT analysis is usually a square with four quadrants, each representing the four entities of the SWOT analysis. This arrangement provides a quick and visual overview of the company’s state/ position and encourages discussions within the organization to help improve where needed. The graphical overview typically helps the company to determine its progress and whether it has achieved its goals and overall objectives. After deciding on its progress, the company will try to maximize its strengths, eliminate its weaknesses and capitalize on its opportunities.

    Limitations of SWOT Analysis

    1. Lack of Clarity

    SWOT analysis does not provide a clear method to deal with cases such as when a specific factor is both a weakness and a strength. The management has to attach their values to these factors, which show up as strengths and weaknesses, and make the right decision on the best step to follow in addressing the issue.

    2. Too Many Opinions to Address

    During the SWOT analysis process, it is most likely that the organization’s leader will involve managers, departmental heads, senior executives, and all other employees to seek their opinions. All of their opinions may come out to be valid and effective. Although all their opinions and demands may be correct, it is challenging to address all their views and input. Therefore, some views and demands which would assist the organization significantly would be left out.

    Competitor Analysis

    For any organization, always operate in a highly competitive environment. Cases of monopoly companies are sporadic. Therefore, analyzing an organization’s competition state in the environment is very important (Fisher et al., 2020). Analyzing these competitors will help an organization in discovering its weaknesses, threats, and any opportunities available in the market/ industrial environment. While coming up and formulating a business strategy, the management of an organization should also consider the business strategies of its competitors.

    Therefore, a competitor analysis is a process of identifying competitors in your industrial environment and doing thorough research on their different marketing skills/ strategies. The information acquired from these competitive organizations can be used as a point of reference/ comparison in identifying your company’s strengths and weaknesses. Performing a competitor analysis will also help your business in understanding your market, identifying trends in the industry, and setting benchmarks for future growth of your Business (Fisher et al., 2020).

    Reasons for Doing a Competitor Analysis

    1. Identify your business’s strengths and weaknesses.

    By clearly studying how your competitors are perceived in the industrial environment, you are able to come up with conclusions about your company’s strengths and weaknesses. Having information on your strengths will inform you of your position in the market. It is also imperative to communicate to your customers why your goods or services are the best compared to all the choices in the market.

    Having information on your company’s weaknesses is essential in helping your organization grow and achieve its objectives (Fisher et al., 2020). You will be able to identify areas that need more time and resources for improvement to be made. In studying your competitors, you would see what they are doing right and what you can change in your organization to eliminate the weaknesses.

    2. Understand your Market

    Doing a thorough competitor research will assist you in identifying competitors/companies that you did not consider as your competition before. Having information on your competitors is the first step to beating them. Doing thorough research and analysis of what your competitors offer will assist your company in identifying areas where your market is undeserved. Finding any gap/niche in the market will help your company in expanding and become more successful.

    3. Trends in the Industry

    Properly analyzing the competition in your industrial environment can assist you in identifying and seeing the direction the industry is moving, either technological advancement or product improvement. However, you should not emulate or copy what your competitors are doing; instead, you should evaluate your customers’ needs and implement what the customers want.

    Other objectives of doing competitor analysis include: formulating a strategy, predicting the company’s demand and supply, coming up with new approaches to increase the market share, developing a plan for the growth of your company, and helping in forecasting oncoming threats and opportunities.

    Strategic Leadership

    Strategic leadership is defined as a manager’s potential/ability to demonstrate a strategic vision for the company and to instill the motivation to make the company succeed in other individuals in the company (Samimi et al., 2020). In much simpler words, strategic leadership refers to the utilization of strategies in the management of employees. It is the ability of a company’s leadership to have an influence on its members in helping the company accomplish its objectives. The main function of strategic leaders is to create an organizational structure, make strategic decisions, allocate resources, and demonstrate a strategic vision.

    The main objective of strategic leadership is the ability to express strategic productivity. A strategic leader aims at developing a suitable environment where the employees will predict the company’s needs in the context of their own positions in the company (Samimi et al., 2020). As a strategic manager, your principal function is to motivate the employees to follow their own ideas in their specific fields. Forms of motivation and encouragement include the reward system where the best or most improved employees are rewarded.

    Qualities of an effective strategic leader include loyalty, motivation, compassion, self-control, social skills, self-awareness, having a broad perspective, being articulate, and reliability.


    Strategic management is a process involving environmental analysis of the organization by its managers to formulate strategies and plans for their implementation. Hence it can be concluded that strategic management involves activities such as analysis of strategies, creation, implementation, and control strategies. It is very important for an organization to understand what its current situation is in order to develop and determine its mission and objectives. Strategies can successfully be deployed by an organization to realize its objective and mission. Strategic management in any organization needs a lot of strategic thinking to help managers recognize the priorities and come up with the best actions necessary in realizing the mission and objectives. Strategy is a very useful concept utilized by managers. Therefore, this study has discussed strategic management in an organization by defining its main concept as well as the conceptual framework to be used in this research. The study has also identified gaps in recent related studies.






















    The study aims to assess the relationship between strategic management in organizations and the performance appraisal system. For decades now, organizations have adopted strategic management approaches to gain a competitive advantage. Leading companies like Apple, Samsung, and Facebook have comprehensive strategies that drive their businesses. Strategic management applies in every aspect of an organization, including recruitment, manufacturing, quality improvement, and sales and advertisement. Strategies make organizations sustainable (Bryson & George, 2020).

    On the other hand, human resource managers use an appraisal system to evaluate employee performance in organizations. The performance appraisal system is critical in measuring employee productivity, the quality of products, and how they contribute to competitive advantage. Organizations implement various types of performance appraisal systems to assess their employees. Numerous articles published previously show that appropriate performance appraisal can increase employee motivation, performance, and job satisfaction (Subekti, 2021). Likewise, studies indicate that strategic management leads to business sustainability, increased performance, and profitability. However, less scholarly work explains how strategic management and performance appraisal systems relate to each other in organizations. Thus, the study will address the gap by detailing clearly the relationship between strategic management and performance appraisal.

    Research Method

    The research focuses on strategic management in organizations. There on numerous researches on strategic management in the organization, but little is known about employees’ perspectives and views of strategic management. The study method that will be used in the research is quantitative along with null hypothesis. The research method is focused on numbers and accuracy. (Apuke, 2017) defines quantitative research as a method that deals with quantifying and analyzing variables to get results. The method involves utilizing and analyzing numerical data using various statistical tools to answer questions (Apuke, 2017).

    The first reason for using quantitative research methodology is to conduct a much broader study on strategic management in an organization. Quantitative studies will allow for the inclusion of a larger sample size, unlike other research methods (Apuke, 2017). The other advantage of the research method is that it allows for objectivity and accuracy. The study method allows for the inclusion of a few variables (Mander, 2022). Further, the data collected is closed-ended. Subsequently, it will be easy to analyze the collected data during data analysis. Additionally, collecting data is easy using a quantitative approach.

    The methodology will be used because it will help provide first-hand information about strategic management, employee performance, and job satisfaction.

    Research Design

    There are four quantitative research methods; descriptive, correlation, quasi-experimental and experimental. The study will use a correlation study design. A correlation study measures the relationship between various variables. The dependent variables are employee motivation and job satisfaction while the independent variable is the organization’s strategic management. It will be used to determine how strategic management affects various organizational variables. There are three types of correlations in business studies that can be found when comparing the association between various variables. The first correlation is positive and occurs when an increase in one variable increases the other (Formplus, 2020). A negative correlation occurs when the association between variables is inversely proportional, while zero correlation is when the variables do not affect each other (Formplus, 2020). Descriptive research is used to obtain information describing a phenomenon or population in business. However, it will not be used in the research because the concept of strategic management in organizations is well-defined. Quasi-experiments are used to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention. However, the research will not focus on programs or organizational interventions, and thus, it is unsuitable. On the hand, experimental studies are used to determine the cause-and-effect relationship between dependent and independent variables. Therefore, it is unsuitable for this particular dependent study.


    The study participants will be employees from the organizations where strategic management will be studied. Selection will be done using the criterion sampling technique. The researcher will employ the following sampling formula:


    z = is the Z score

    ∈= is the margin of error

    N = is the population

    = is the population proportion

    The type of sample the researcher is using is the sample size. A total of 120 participants will be included. The total number of participants are the total number of supervisors and managers that work at Michelin plant in South Carolina. The confidence level is 95%, margin of error is 5%, population proportion is 50%, and the population size is 120. There will be a total of 92 participants per the sample size calculator, which was used from (see Appendix I). That is how the researcher came up with the participant calculation. Each participant will be informed of the research objectives and fill out consent forms before participating in the study. Data collected will be kept confidential by the researcher. There will also be an age range of the participants from 25 to 64 years of age (see Appendix K). The researcher will post a screening questioner on the manufacturer’s (Michelin) message board, to see if the participants are within the qualifications for the research.


    Instrumentation refers to the tools or means researchers used to measure various research variables. Each instrument is selected based on the research goals. The research will use a questionnaire to collect information on various variables related to strategic management from an organization. According to (Leung, 2001), questionnaires are used to collect information from participants the researcher is interested with. Furthermore, a questionnaire is applicable in research when to collect factual data. Consequently, the investigators must ensure that the questionnaires are highly structured to allow the same types of information to be collected from a large number of people in the same way and for data to be analyzed quantitatively and systematically (Leung, 2001). The research will use questionnaires to obtain critical information on independent variables. The survey instrument used for the study will be comprised of the screening questions, the informed consent form, demographic characteristics questions, and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) (see Appendix G), and individual work performance questionnaire (IWPQ) (see Appendix H). Data for the survey will stem from SurveyMonkey via the personal computer of the researcher. The researcher is the only individual who can access the file as the computer is password protected. Data will kept on the computer for three years after the study is completed. The statistical software program (SPSS) will be used in the research once responses are gathered. The data will be downloaded from Survey Monkey, cleaned in Excel, and put into SPSS. The data assumptions test for normality, linear testing, and homoscedasticity will be done prior to hypothesis testing to ensure parametric analysis is appropriate. To access these, histograms and bar graph will be used while multicollinearity will be assessed using the Pearson correlation matrix. The sampling methods to be used will be a random simple sample. The researcher will identify the group and obtain individuals within those samples. Including a random simple sample can ensure that each participant within the sample population group has equal chances of participation.


    There are different types of questionnaires that include open-ended, closed and semi structured. Open-ended questions have no choices and participants are allowed to give their responses which may differ significantly (Aryal, 2021). On the other hand, closed questions have predetermined answers. The researcher can provide multiple choices and allow participants to select one choice. Also, such questions may require a no or yes answer. On the other hand, semi structured questions use both types of questions (open-ended and closed. (Leung, 2001) asserts that proper questionnaire design leads to accurate information and increase response rate. Therefore, the research will use closed-ended question. The main reason for using closed-ended questionnaire is that the research is quantitative. Therefore, providing participants with predetermined choices will lead to numerical data thereby facilitating the use of quantitative data analysis method (Aryal, 2021). Open-ended questionnaires will not be used in the study because the responses obtained are qualitative and not numerical. Qualitative data will not be suitable in the quantitative research (see Appendix G and H). Lastly, semi-structured questionnaires are excluded because they may only be more suitable in mixed method research where both quantitative and qualitative data is used.

    Structured Interviews


    Other common instruments used to collect data in research are interviews and observation. Interview is a method of data collection that involves two or more people exchanging information through a series of questions and answers. When the number of people responding to the question is more than one, it becomes a focus group. (Cameron, J., 2005). Interviews are appropriate when asking questions involving lengthy explanation or when studying confusing topics with respondents. However, they will not be applied in the research because of increased bias. Also, they lead to qualitative information while the research is quantitative. On the other hand, observation is a data collection method where the researcher watches people, events or features of the research environment (Delve, 2022) The main weakness of the methodology is that the researcher will have to spend more time in collecting data (Aryal, 2022). Also, it will be difficult to control research variables. Consequently, the method will not be used in the research.

    Research Procedure

    The first procedure in the research will be identifying the dependent and independent research variables. The dependent variable is the management and leadership traits on employee performance, motivation, and job satisfaction. The Independent variable are the results of feedback form the employees concerning their performance, motivation, and satisfaction in the organization. The research will focus these variables during the data collection process. The second procedure will involve selecting participants. The criterion sampling technique will be used to identify one hundred participants. Permissions to Interview employees by via emails, or in person has been secured and are attached as a separate document. Approval for the potential participants will proceed in the following steps: (1) post the survey link in each group and ask potential participants to read consent form and partake in survey (Appendix A) (2) have participants pass screening questions in order to move to the step (Appendix B) (3) notify in the opening content of survey what the participation is for and how they can access the results (see Appendix A). These forms also include how the researcher is not requesting personal information such as participant names or organizational names. Privacy and confidentiality will be ensured by not distributing personal information of the participants. Data for the survey will stem from SurveyMonkey (see Appendix J) via the personal computer of the researcher. The researcher is the only individual who can access the file as the computer is password protected. Data will kept on the computer for three years after the study is completed. The participants will fill consent forms before enrolling to participate in the research. Also, participation will be made voluntary with those participating. Each participant will be free to withdraw from the research process at any time without seeking permission from the researcher. Participants will be both female and males and employees of selected organization. After collecting data, data will be analyzed and findings shared to the relevant stakeholders.

    Data Analysis

    Data analysis involves organizing and explaining the data collected from the field or secondary sources. I will be using Microsoft Excel software to collect data. Therefore, it involves the process of making sense of data based on the definition of patterns and themes. Questionnaires will be edited for completeness and consistency after collecting data. This will ensure that variations related to missing responses, and multiple responses are minimized.

    Quantitative data will be analyzed using SPSS with in SurveyMonkey to draw findings related to this study. Of which SurveyMonkey is a way to find out if survey or experiment results are significant. Before conducting analysis, the non-standard and complex nature of collected data would be categorized to ensure meaningful analysis. Additionally, the collected data would be presented in charts, and tables. This way, the analysis process would establish whether the collected data supports the objective of the study. Correlation will be identified using Pearson.

    Protection of Human Rights

    The researcher would remind the sample population on voluntary participation and that they could withdraw from the study at any time during the process of the study. No participants would be compelled to provide responses that would be used against them. Also, the researcher will remind them of the confidentiality of their responses during the study. Also, the researcher will provide the procedures that would be followed to protect the confidentiality of the information provided by respondents. This will be done through Michelin’s white board, and also through email. This will ensure that the information provided by respondents during interviews and questionnaires will not be used against them by the organization. After ensure that all protocol have been established to address protection of human subject issues, the researcher would ensure that the proposal is reviewed and approved by the South University Institutional Review Board.


    Delimitations and Limitations

    Since data will be collected from five different companies in the United States, the data collected might differ from the participants’ perception on the relationship between strategic management in organizations and the performance appraisal system. This is because most companies utilize different strategic management that is likely to be different from their competitors. However, the study will use effective instruments to collect both specific and general information on the relationship between strategic management and the performance appraisal system.

    Moreover, the study is likely to experience financial and time limitations. The duration in which the study is conducted is limited; therefore, it will be exhaustive to collect data from five different companies in the United States. However, the study will minimize these limitations by conducted interviews at the headquarters of these companies because it is where strategic management are implemented and pass on to other branches.

    Additionally, most of the respondents thought that the information they provided in interviews and questionnaires could be used against them by the organization. As a result, they had fears to the point that they are reluctant to engage in this study and provided dishonest responses. However, to address this limitation, the researcher will remind them of the confidentiality of their responses during the study. Also, the researcher will provide the procedures that would be followed to protect the confidentiality of the information provided by respondents.

    Assumptions, Risks and Biases

    Assumption refers to conditions under which the statistical techniques utilized will lead to valid results. In this context, the researcher assumed that the employees involved in the study would cooperate by providing honest and complete answers during interview sessions and when responding to questionnaires. Additionally, the sample was assumed to be true representation of study population as they had similar characteristics.

    One of the biases that can occur in research is design biases which relates to the structure and method of the research. Design bias is contributed by the preferences of the researcher instead of selecting research design that work effectively for a certain context. In our context, it is worth noting that there is risk of biases from the interviewer as he can introduce his disposition or relation with the participants. There is also a risk of biased questions in terms of negative questions or leading questions. As a result, the researcher has ensured that biased questions in interview and questionnaires. Also predetermined questions will be used for the structured interview. This will ensure consistency among employees and managers drawn from different organizations (Formplus, 2020). The uniformity of questions will prevent biases during the research process.

    Significance of the Study

    Managers of different companies will benefit from the finding of this study because in a globalized world, the strategic management influence the state of performance appraisal system. They will understand different strategic management practices and this will help them to improve performance of appraisal system. Management of companies will get better understanding of the relationship between strategic management in organizations and the performance appraisal system. This will help them to obtain more information on how to establish strategic management practices that will improve performance appraisal system in their organizations.

    The findings of this study will also be beneficial to academicians and scholars as it will provide them with relevant literature on strategic management and performance appraisal. It will highlight the relationship between strategic management in organizations and the performance appraisal system.


    The study is a detailed description of research design, population and sample, instrumentation, research procedure, data analysis, and limitations. The study aims to assess the relationship between strategic management in organizations and the performance appraisal system. At least 92 participants will be selected from 1 company in the state of South Carolina and the study will be conducted using a quantitative research method. The instrumentation for use in the study is questionnaires and interviews. The researcher will include questions related to strategic management and performance appraisal in the questionnaires and interviews. The findings of this study will be beneficial to management of companies as they will get better understanding of the relationship between strategic management in organizations and the performance appraisal system. This will help them to obtain more information on how to establish strategic management practices that will improve performance appraisal system in their organizations.



















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    Appendix A: Informed Consent Form for Participants


    You are invited to participate in a web-based online survey on The Role of Strategic Management and Leadership Traits on Employee Performance, Motivation, and Job Satisfaction. This is a research project being conducted by Ameki Williams, a student at South University.  It should take approximately 35 minutes to complete.



    PARTICIPATION Your participation in this survey is voluntary. You may refuse to take part in the research or exit the survey at any time without penalty. You are free to decline to answer any particular question you do not wish to answer for any reason.


    BENEFITS You will receive no direct benefits from participating in this research study. However, your responses may help us learn more about whether relationships exist among of strategic management and leadership traits on employee performance, motivation, and job satisfaction in the United States



    There are no foreseeable risks involved in participating in this study other than those encountered in day-to-day life.

    CONFIDENTIALITY Your survey answers will be sent to a link at where data will be stored in a password protected electronic format. Survey Monkey does not collect identifying information such as your name, email address, or IP address. Therefore, your responses will remain anonymous. No one will be able to identify you or your answers, and no one will know whether or not you participated in the study.

    CONTACT If you have questions at any time about the study or the procedures, you may contact my research supervisor, Professor Kuofie via phone at 248-798-5597 or via email at .  If you feel you have not been treated according to the descriptions in this form, or that your rights as a participant in research have not been honored during the course of this project, or you have any questions, concerns, or complaints that you wish to address to someone other than the investigator, you may contact the South University Institutional Review Board at .

    ELECTRONIC CONSENT: If you choose to participate in this survey you are agreeing that you have read the above information, voluntarily agree to participate, and are 25-64 years of age or older.

    Appendix B: Screening Questionnaire for Participants


    1. Are you at least the age of 25 through 64?

    A. Yes

    B. No

    2. Are you in a leadership or management role?

    A. Yes

    B. No

    3. Do you live in the State of SC?

    A. Yes

    B. No

    4. Do you have at least 3 years of experience in your role?

    A. Yes

    B. No

    5. Are you a male or female?

    A. Male

    B. Female







    Appendix C: Permission from Michelin’s HR Manager

    Dear Mr. Burdette,


    HR Manager of Michelin


    I am seeking permission from you to post a message within the message board that you are the manager of regarding gaining participants for my dissertation study. I do not intend to conduct the study in the group, only to seek potential participants. I would like to post in the message board the purpose of the study, study participant criteria, and my contact information so anyone who desires to participate or has additional questions can contact me.


    Prior to any data collection, the study will be approved by the university’s Institutional Review Board and as part of that approval process I am required to obtain gatekeeper permission from sites where I hope to recruit and interview participants.


    The purpose of this study is to see whether a relationship exists between exist among the strategic management and leadership traits on employee’s performance, motivation, and job satisfaction in the United States.


    The study will consist of a survey questionnaire and the questionnaires should take approximately 35-40 minutes to complete. Participation is strictly voluntary and there are minimal, if any, potential risks. All participant and organizational names will remain anonymous though the use of pseudonyms. Participants can select the time to complete the questionnaires and I certainly do not intend to take away from their workday.


    To reiterate, I am only seeking permission to post a message regarding the purpose of the study, study participant criteria, and my contact information for anyone interested in participating or who has additional questions. I am not seeking to conduct the study within the group message board.




    I appreciate your kind consideration of my request to assist me in completing my doctoral dissertation.




    Ameki Williams

    Doctoral Candidate, South University Online



    Michelin’s Permission to use









    Appendix D: Message Group Board Post


    Hi, my name is Ameki Williams, and I am a doctoral candidate at South University Online working on a Doctor of Business in Administration degree. I am conducting a study entitled The Role of Strategic Management and Leadership Traits on Employee Performance, Motivation, and Job Satisfaction. The purpose of this study is to examine whether relationships exist among job performance, transformational leadership style, and employee turnover intention in the United States.


    I am seeking at 50 professionals who meet the following criteria in order to participate in the study:


    · Aged 25-64

    · Have leadership/management roles in automotive.

    · Live in the United States/South Carolina

    · Has at least 3 years of experience in that role.

    · I will need to know rather you are male or female.



    The participant’s name will not be requested/used in the material write-up so there will be no manner of knowing from where the participant works nor will the particular organization’s name be shared in the material write-up. Participants will be given pseudonyms such as Participant 1, Participant 2, etc. Should organizational names emerge in the interviews, the organizations will be given pseudonyms as well such as Organization 1, Organization 2, etc. and only the principal researcher will know to which participant or organization the pseudonym aligns.


    By participating in this study, the participant might contribute to new ideas regarding make contributions to improve employee turnover intention specific to the automotive industry. Also, the participant will know that he/she has contributed to adding to the body of knowledge in automotive and business research.



    If you meet the participant criteria and are interested in participation, you may access the Survey Questionnaire via the following link XXXX. An informed consent form will be presented ahead of the questionnaire and must be acknowledged prior to proceeding to the questionnaire.








    Appendix E: IWPQ Permission


    IWPQ Permission to Use



















    Appendix F: MLQ Permission

    MLQ Permission

    C:\Users\amwilliams\Downloads\MLQ Permission Appendix F.jpg



    Appendix G: MLQ




    Appendix H: Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ)

    Koopmans, L. (Linda) <>

    Mon 5/30/2022 3:27 AM





    Appendix I: Sample Size Calculator

















    Appendix J: SurveyMonkey



















    Appendix K: Age Rang and Sex of Managers and Supervisors



    Percent of Adults 25 to 64 years old that are managers and supervisors at Michelin Plant In 2022


    25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 64 25 to 64 0.96 0.84 0.9 0.89 0.96 Female

    25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 64 25 to 64 0.93 0.85 0.94 0.8 0.93 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 64 25 to 64

    age rang



    Percent of Population

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