Week 2 Discussion

This week’s theme is to examine how a particular field of psychology (i.e., a field of specific interest to you) arrived to its current form and what major theories are associated with that field of psychology. For this particular assignment, we are going to discuss the major theories related to your field of interest in psychology.

  • Review at least 3 scholarly sources on the major theories related to your interests in psychology
  • Explain how those theories impact your choice in your particular interest (field) of psychology.
  • Respond to at least two posts by the end of the week.Areas of Specialization in Psychology

    The psychology major provides its students with both a liberal arts education and the opportunity to explore specific areas of psychology in which they have special interests. Graduate education is a process of further refinement during which students become increasingly proficient and knowledgeable in an area of psychological specialization. Described below are some specialty areas in psychology that require graduate education. (See also APA’s Psychology/Careers for the Twenty-first Century: Scientific Problem Solvers.) This is by no means an exhaustive list of specialties in psychology, and if you wish to see a description of a particular area, please feel free to write and ask about it.

    CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY: Clinical psychologists assess and treat people with psychological problems. They may act as therapists for people experiencing normal psychological crises (e.g., grief) or for individuals suffering from chronic psychiatric disorders. Some clinical psychologists are generalists who work with a wide variety of populations, while others work with specific groups like children, the elderly, or those with specific disorders (e.g., schizophrenia). They are trained in universities or professional schools of psychology. They may be found working in academic settings, hospitals, community health centers, or private practice. (See also Counseling Psychology.)

    COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY: Counseling psychologists do many of the same things that clinical psychologists do. However, counseling psychologists tend to focus more on persons with adjustment problems rather than on persons suffering from severe psychological disorders. They may be trained in Psychology Departments or in Schools of Education. Counseling psychologists are employed in academic settings, community mental health centers, and private practice. (See also Clinical Psychology.) Not to be confused with the field of psychology, psychiatry is its own medical specialty.

    DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: Developmental psychologists study how we develop intellectually, socially, and emotionally over the lifespan. Some focus on just one period of life (e.g., childhood or adolescence). Developmental psychologists usually do research and teach in academic settings, but many act as consultants to day care centers, schools, or social service agencies.

    EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: Educational psychologists are concerned with the study of human learning. They attempt to understand the basic aspects of learning and then develop materials and strategies for enhancing the learning process. For example, an educational psychologist might study reading and then develop a new technique for teaching reading. They are typically trained in Schools of Education and employed in academic settings. (See also School Psychology.)

    EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: This area includes a diverse group of psychologists who do research in the most basic areas of psychology (e.g., learning, memory, cognition, perception, motivation, and language). Their research may be conducted with animals instead of humans. Most of these psychologists work in academic settings.

    FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY: Forensic psychologists are involved in analyzing crime evidence and aiding law enforcement agencies in criminal investigations. See the brochure from the Psychology and Law division of the American Psychological Association, on this site, for useful information.

    HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY: Health psychologists are concerned with psychology’s contributions to the promotion and maintenance of good health and the prevention and treatment of illness. They may design and conduct programs to help individuals stop smoking, lose weight, manage stress, and stay physically fit. They are employed in hospitals, medical schools, rehabilitation centers, public health agencies, academic settings, and private practice.

    HUMAN FACTORS PSYCHOLOGY: Human Factors researchers study the human/machine interface. They may help make appliances such as cameras user-friendly, or they may do studies of safety-related issues in the design of machinery, airplane controls and instrument layouts, or they may do basic research on human perceptual and motor abilities as they relate to the operation of machines, computers, and other mechanical devices.

    INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: Industrial/organizational psychologists are primarily concerned with the relationships between people and their work environments. They may develop new ways to increase productivity or be involved in personnel selection. They are employed in business, government agencies, and academic settings.

    PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY: Physiological psychologists study the physiological correlates of behavior. They study both very basic processes (e.g., how brain cells function) and more readily observable phenomena (e.g., behavioral changes as a function of drug use or the biological/genetic roots of psychiatric disorders). Most are employed in academic settings.

    SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY: School psychologists are involved in enhancing the development of children in educational settings. They assess children’s psycho-educational abilities and recommend actions to facilitate student learning. They are typically trained in Schools of Education and work in public school systems. They often act as consultants to parents, teachers, and administrators to optimize the learning environments of specific students. (See also Educational Psychology.)

    SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY: Social psychologists study how our beliefs, feelings, and behaviors are affected by other persons. Some topics of interest to social psychologists are attitude formation and change, aggression, prejudice, and interpersonal attraction. Most social psychologists work in academic settings, but some work in federal agencies and businesses doing applied research.

    APA-style reference for this page:

    Lloyd, M. A. and Dewey, R. A. (1997, August 28). Areas of specialization in psychology.


    History of Psychology.html

    History of Psychology

    Some time ago you probably took a History and Systems of Psychology course. That course is standard fare in most psychology programs and one of the reasons is the need to be proficient in understanding the origins and foundations of psychology to understand the complexities of modern psychology–especially when we begin to utilize it in our careers.

    The origins of psychology or pre-psychology began with philosophy. One of the main criticisms of studying the history of psychology is the over-reliance of Western (European) philosophies as the basis for developing psychology. In some respects, much of psychology of today can be traced directly back to the early European philosophers. A world view of psychology is a relatively new concept that began in the latter half of the 20th century.

    One way to examine the foundations of psychology and its systems is to imagine psychology as a big tree. The roots of psychology begin in ancient philosophy when reasoning and problem solving were first examined. That foundation led philosophers through the centuries to begin to wonder why individuals think and interact with their world around them.

    Additional Materials

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    Classical Learning Experiments

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    media/week2/Wk2_L1_The History of Psychology.pdf


    The History of Psychology The branches of psychology are numerous as we saw in Week 1, but they all began with the simple question: Why do we behave the way we do? In his text Principles of Psychology (1890), William James provides a rather complex definition of psychology but in essence does relate to the basic question of why we behave the way we do.

    Psychology is the Science of Mental Life, both of its phenomena and of their conditions. The phenomena are such things as we call feelings, desires, cognitions, reasonings, decisions, and the like; and, superficially considered, their variety and complexity is such as to leave a chaotic impression on the observer. (para. 1)

    Reconciling the History of Psychology During the 20th century, psychology as a science flourished in many different avenues—from physiological to social. Early “scientific” research was actually pseudoscientific, such as phrenology and utilizing introspection to understand human behavior. Other forms of research would likely be considered unethical from today’s standards, such as the Milgram experiment and Jose Delgado’s neural implant experiments on animals. The major challenge with reconciling the history of psychology with our own perspectives on psychology is to answer the basic question “what is relevant and what is not?” What is considered significant to current standards and what information is relegated to just being part of psychology’s history? In some aspects psychology is not one theory or perspective but an amalgamation of information that over the centuries has coagulated into what is considered psychology. If that is the case, then why are there so many different types of psychology? The simple answer is of course “one size does not fit all.”




    Dillard_S Discussion 2

    Contains unread posts

    Shawnte Dillard posted Jun 8, 2022 4:36 PM


    Child psychology (Developmental psychology) is the study of the conscious and unconscious within childhood development. While a child grows the interactions they have throughout this time are observed and documented for research. One of the major theories associated with child psychology is the attachment theory. In the article Parent and Peer Attachment as Predictors of Emerging Adulthood Characteristics the attachments made during childhood are used to predict characteristics in adulthood.

    Attachments made with parents leaves an impact during the period between adolescence and young adulthood. “The process of developing attachment occurs over a period of time and is not automatic or immediate (Bowlby, 1969). Attachment relationships can have positive and negative characteristics, and perceived security or support in a parent–child relationship affects both the tone and the trajectory for future relationships (Szwedo et al., 2017).

    During EA, positive.” (Schnyders, Rainey, and McGlothlin, 2018).

    The next theory is in child psychology is the social learning theory. The social learning theory is the social behavior and learning process that are acquired by watching and imitating others, this can happen at any point in development but is crucial during childhood. I chose the article Infants Rely More on Gaze Cues From Own-Race Than Other-Race Adults for Learning Under Uncertainty to give an example of what is studied within the social learning theory. For infants visual cues are used to communicate and build relationships with those around them. This article investigated specifically whether or not gaze cues from same race individuals are relied on more than others, this can be known as racial bias. While being in early development infants use this activity to communicate and develop new skills. “infants in the 1st year of life integrate online statistical information with prior knowledge to guide learning from social cues in real time. Infants are biased to follow the social cues of own-race individuals over other-race adults under situations of uncertainty. When own- and other-race individuals are highly reliable, infants follow own- and other-race social cues equally” (Xiao et. Al , 2017).

    The final major theory in child psychology is the sociocultural theory. This theory is the notion that the interactions we hold with others along with our culture shape our mental abilities. A factor that can affect our well being is our emotions. In article Children’s and Parents’ Perceptions of Vulnerability as Weakness: Associations with Children’s Well-Being researchers specifically look at vulnerability expression. To create meaningful and intimate relationships it is key to share the emotions that us vulnerable. However many people choose to avoid these things. Parents punishing or minimizing these emotions in their children can cause psychological distress damaging their future interactions with others. “If parents respond to children’s expression of vulnerable emotions or physical states in an empathic, compassionate and validat- ing manner, usually children will learn that it is safe to express emotions such as fear, sadness, and shame, or to express need when they are sick or hurt. On the other hand, if parents respond with anger, ignoring, criticism, or inva- lidation, children might learn that expressing vulnerability is not safe” (Borelli et. Al, 2019).

    These theories help me understand the most important aspects about child psychology. With me working in the field of ABA I can see these three theories become apparent in my everyday activities.


    Borelli, J. L., Smiley, P. A., Gaskin, G., Pham, P. T., Kussman, M., & Shahar, B. (2019). Children’s and parents’ perceptions of vulnerability as weakness: Associations with children’s well-being. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28(10), 2727–2741. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-019-01453-1

    Schnyders, C. M., Rainey, S., & McGlothlin, J. (2018). Parent and peer attachment as predictors of emerging adulthood characteristics. Adultspan Journal, 17(2), 71–80. https://doi.org/10.1002/adsp.12061

    Xiao, N. G., Wu, R., Quinn, P. C., Liu, S., Tummeltshammer, K. S., Kirkham, N. Z., Ge, L., Pascalis, O., & Lee, K. (2017). Infants rely more on gaze cues from own-race than other-race adults for learning under uncertainty. Child Development, 89(3). https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12798


    Week 2 Discussion

    Contains unread posts

    Barbara Brown posted Jun 9, 2022 2:10 PM


    Counseling psychology developed as an practical skill within the bounds of the American Psychological Associations in the 1940s. Thus, it has been acknowledge as a skill by the American Psychological Associations since 1946, as well as this acknowledgement. Hence, “landmarks in the history of counseling psychology include the establishment of the discipline in relation to the overall profession of psychology, the creation of key professional journals, and important conferences held across the years” (psychology, 2022). Moreover, nearly all regarding the countless “individual theoretical models of counseling fall into one or more of six major theoretical categories: humanistic, integrate, design thinking across curricula cognitive, behavioral, psychoanalytic, constructionist and systemic” (McAdams, 2019).

    According to this peer-reviewed scholarly journal article on the major theories related to child psychology it suggested that numerous districts regarding developmental psychology have viewed much major exploration in recent years, challenging old presumptions as well as aspects to light. Hence, the contents in developmental psychology sequence have been intended to embrace the development based on present-day field as well as the evolutions in the field coming from a worldwide view, delivering state-of-the-art, higher extent additions to significant field/districts. Furthermore, each and every one capacity is reported by experts whom unite observed evidence as well as a combination based on the latest exploration to bring innovative information in a scheme obtainable to students as well as scientists similar. Also, thinking regarding notions is one of the few contents to essential explore each of two modern as well as postmodern additions to abstract development in child as well as adolescent. Granted, “the text has been written specifically taking into account the findings from a focus group of Honours psychology students to include pedagogical features such as an overview of theories linking the various schools of thought, ideas for further study and links to selected websites; as well as the latest developments in theoretical thinking including evolutionary theory, feminism and indigenous theory, and implications of theory for practice” (Slee and Shute, 2003). Above all, child psychology is the study based on subconscious as well as conscious childhood evolution.

    According to this peer-reviewed scholarly journal article on the major theories related to counseling psychology it suggested that in preparing in consequence of the fact that aging international population, older adults’ health has become an serious preference around the world. Nevertheless, counseling psychologists have also called consequent to the range for more observed consideration on older adults. Indeed, “yet, a review of the literature revealed that older adults were represented in less than 2% of all the articles in the Journal of Counseling Psychology (JCP) and The Counseling Psychologists (TCP) from 1991 to 2000” (Reum, 2018).

    According to this peer-reviewed scholarly journal article on the major theories related to forensic psychology it suggested that forensic psychology explores several features based on psychology including an considerable traditional oversight based on psychology as well as forensic psychology. Also, it consist of definitions based on psychology, constitution, principles as well as methods in association to forensic psychology. Consequently, it contends the aspect based on forensic psychologists. Granted, “provides the reader with insights into the development of its history, so as to understand why there are ethical issues in forensic psychology” (Zeryl, 2019).

    The three theories gave me an understanding based on the most major conditions regarding child psychology, counseling psychology, and forensic psychology.


    History of Counseling Psychology-IResearchNet, (2022). Retrieved from https://psychology.iresearchnet.com>history-of-counsel.

    Keum, Brian Taehyuk, (Dec 2018). Counselling Psychology Quarterly. V01. 31 Issue 4, p446-459. 14p. D01: 10.1080/09515070.2017.1324762., Database:

    McAdams, C; (2019). Counseling Theories and Approaches. Retrieved from https://counseling.education.wm.edu>blog>counseling-t.

    Slee, Philip T.; Saute, Rosalyn H, (2003). Series: Texts in Developmental Psychology. London: Routledge.eBook., Database:

    Zeryl Joy M. Fiscal, (2019). Oakville on, Canada: Society Publishing.eBook., Database:

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