Running Head: WEEK 5 DISCUSSION 1








Week 5 Discussion














Week 5 Discussion

Analysis was carried out in SPSS to determine before (Pre) and after (Post) treatment of participants from the two groups, that is, level of anxiety among children who between 3 to 13 years and adult opiate substance abuse for adults aged 65 and above.

Wilcoxon Signed Rank test was used to examine Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) outcome variables for the levels of anxiety between children of ages 3 to 13 (Reardon et al., 2018). The variables SCAS_Pre_Total and SCAS_Pst_Total, which were the sums of score items before and after treatment, were used. Analysis was as shown in Table 1.

Table 1

Descriptive Statistics
  N Mean Std. Deviation Minimum Maximum
SCAS_Pre_Total 54 67.6481 9.50106 48.00 84.00
SCAS_Pst_Total 54 67.7593 9.28569 48.00 84.00


Test Statisticsa
  SCAS_Pst_Total – SCAS_Pre_Total
Z -.962b
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .336
a. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test
b. Based on negative ranks.



According to the analysis, Z (52) = -.962, p = .336. The descriptive statistics showed that children anxiety was higher after treatment (M = 67.76, SD = 9.29) compared to before treatment (M = 67.64, SD = 9.50). The difference was not significant however since the p-value was greater than .05.


Wilcoxon Singed Rank Test was also used to examine the difference in mean scores for adult opiate substance abuse (ASI) before and after treatment. Table 2 showed the results of the analysis.

Table 2

Descriptive Statistics
  N Mean Std. Deviation Minimum Maximum
ASI_Pre_Total 46 26.6304 6.08225 17.00 39.00
ASI_Pst_Total 46 27.6739 6.45344 19.00 42.00


Test Statisticsa
  ASI_Pst_Total – ASI_Pre_Total
Z -3.584b
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .000
a. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test
b. Based on negative ranks.



Analysis indicated that Z (44) = -3.584, p < .01. According to descriptive statistics, the ASI scores after treatment were higher (M = 27.67, SD = 6.45) compared to ASI scores before treatment (M = 27.67, SD = 6.45). The differences in opiate substance abuse among older people showed that treatment significantly increased the intake since p-value was less than .05 level of significance.

When a control and treatment group are considered, Mann-Whitney U test was the most suitable test to determine the difference in means for SCAS and ASI scores between those who received treatment and those who did not (Lin et al., 2021). The analysis were as shown in Table 3.





Table 3


Test Statisticsa
  SCAS_Pre_Total SCAS_Pst_Total
Mann-Whitney U 331.500 330.500
Wilcoxon W 682.500 681.500
Z -.565 -.582
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .572 .561
a. Grouping Variable: Groups



Analysis indicated that the difference was not significant for both SCAS_Pre_Total (Z (52) = -.565, p = .572) and SCAS_Pst_Total (Z (52) = -.582, p = .561).

Table 4 shows the Mann-Whitney U test for the opiate substance abuse scores.

Table 4


Test Statisticsa
  ASI_Pre_Total ASI_Pst_Total
Mann-Whitney U 219.000 187.000
Wilcoxon W 625.000 593.000
Z -.746 -1.480
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .456 .139
a. Grouping Variable: Groups



Analysis indicated insignificance difference in means between treatment and control group for both ASI_Pre_Total (Z (44) = -.746, p = .456) and ASI_Pst_Total (Z (44) = -1.48, p = .139).







Reardon, T., Spence, S. H., Hesse, J., Shakir, A., & Creswell, C. (2018). Identifying children with anxiety disorders using brief versions of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale for children, parents, and teachers. Psychological assessment30(10), 1342.

Lin, T., Chen, T., Liu, J., & Tu, X. M. (2021). Extending the Mann‐Whitney‐Wilcoxon rank sum test to survey data for comparing mean ranks. Statistics in Medicine40(7), 1705-1717.

esults Section Draft

Prepare the Results section of your evaluation report.  Refer to page 222 of the textbook for assistance with this section.  When reporting statistical results, be sure to use APA style; please refer to the APA Publications Manual for proper formatting of statistical outcome data.

*Note: Avoid first person verbiage and write in third person, no direct quotes, and do not give possession to in-text citations or inanimate objects.

The book is Evaluation Fundamentals Insights into Effectiveness, Quality, and values

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