In PSY-452: Experimental Psychology in Topic 8 you completed the Research Report assignment. In this course you will revise components from the PSY-452 assignment and use those revised components to create a research proposal at the end of this course. You should treat this assignment as a potential portfolio piece or writing sample for future grad school applications or job interview.
In 1,250-1,500 words, revise the literature review from the PSY-452 Research Report.
Using the peer-reviewed journal articles included on your Title and Reference Page assignment submitted in Topic 2, add additional information to the literature review section. Keep in mind the purpose of this literature review is to provide background information and research that is related to the topic being proposed to study. Within the sections being added/revised, make sure to include the following:
- Using information from the Identifying Themes in Literature assignment in Topic 2, create headings and subheadings to organize the research in the literature review section. Avoid using direct quotes. Remember you are not writing article summaries.
- Expand the list of resources included in the Topic 2 Title Page and Reference assignment by incorporating updated articles to the literature review section. Cite a minimum of 13-15 peer-reviewed journal articles.
Course Number and Name
People’s sexual orientation and gender-typical childhood behaviors like what toys they play with, who they play with, and what activities they do can be very different between sexes and even within each sex. It is thought that animals that are exposed to gonadal steroids, especially testosterone and its metabolites, when they are young change their behavior in ways that show sex differences. Pregnant women who take steroid hormones can be more likely to have sex-typed childhood behaviors that predict their sexual orientation later in life, according to this study. At least in some people, testosterone exposure during pregnancy may have an effect on their sexual orientation and the development of sex-type interests during childhood. While hormones have been linked to early development, it looks like there are many ways to get to a certain sexual orientation, not all of which involve hormones.
Keywords: Testosterone, Fetal development, Gonadal steroids, and Sexual orientation,
The sexual orientations of men and women, as well as people of both sexes, are very different. If you’re male, you’re more likely than women to be sex-crazed or sex-crazed. There is also a lot of variation in each sex. Several women are androphiles, but not all of them are. The whole reason why people have different sexual orientations isn’t known. It is thought that testosterone is important in the development of most, if not all, behavioral sex differences in other species. The extreme sex difference suggests that testosterone, specifically, is important. Men and women have the same primordial gonads when they are born (Sabo:AWS, n.d.). They grow into testes or ovaries based on their genes. Sex determination is how you figure out who you are (Fisher et al., 2018). Sexual differentiation happens when the gonads mature into testes and ovaries, and their hormones, especially testicular hormones, affect how the body looks as a male or female.
Neonatal or parenatal exposure to testicular hormones results in male-typical development. Female-typical development is a result of a testicular hormone deficiency. This demonstrates that female growth does not require ovarian hormones, which will be discussed in further depth later. According to Bütikofer et al. (2019), the scientific evidence supports this notion for a wide variety of brain regions and behaviors that are significantly different between male and female animals on average. If testosterone and other hormones make you feel sexually attracted, you should read this study. It will demonstrate that gonadotropins (natural hormones) have an effect on human sexual orientation based on animal research. We’ll examine the following study to see how it attempts to determine how an individual’s sexual orientation is influenced by their early endocrine environment. Finally, some future research directions will be discussed.
Problem of the Study
There is overwhelming evidence that gonadal steroids play a big role in the development of human sexual orientation and sex-based behaviors in childhood. The whole reason why people have different sexual orientations isn’t known. It is thought that testosterone is important in the development of most, if not all, behavioral sex differences in other species. The extreme sex difference suggests that testosterone, specifically, is important. In other articles in this special edition, we’ve talked more about some of the things we talked about here. For example, some writers will talk about the genetic and neurological factors that lead to different types of sexual behavior in non-human animals that have been studied in the beginning (Luoto, Krams, and Rantala, 2019). The research topic’s main idea is that prenatal hormone exposure can cause problems with gender identity and intersex people during adolescence, as well as problems with gender identity and intersex people. Each person’s genes were looked at individually, which led to some interesting results that haven’t been repeated (Bütikofer et al., 2019). A lot of people who are intersex don’t know what gender they are, and proxy indicators for prenatal hormone exposure don’t show strong trends in transgender communities, according to research. So, I’d like to do the gene study again and see if the results are different this time around. One of the ways I came up with my hypothesis was to do non-experimental research that found cause and effect relationships that could be turned into an experimental hypothesis.
Each study topic has the same problems and design constraints at the heart of it. The next sections can look at both theoretical and practical aspects of how to do a good job of examining sex differences. Many studies have used the methods or remedies that have been suggested for each problem. There are two important things to think about while hypothesizing knowledge in this study:
i. How are men and women being different in this way?
ii. When they were testing, were gonadal steroids used to make the difference?
Participants will be chosen for a long-term study of how prenatal testosterone affects the development of babies. In this study, there aren’t likely to be any big differences in predictor or control factors between the bigger and smaller groups of people who took part in it. Using backward stepwise linear regression, the data will be looked at. All prenatal testosterone values for both sexes will be combined, and the results will be shown. SPSS will be used to do the analysis. The program is advisable in this case since it saves time and generates frequency distribution tables on a particular survey conducted.
For this reason, looking into how heterogeneity in adult sexual orientation came to be should help us understand how heterogeneity in adult sexual orientation came to be. Exposure to androgens during pregnancy has been shown to change the preferences of children for sex-typical toys, activities, and playmates. According to the study, girls who were exposed to high testosterone levels before they were born had a greater preference for toys, playmates, and activities that were more like those of boys. These findings should support the idea that having androgens in the body while pregnant makes one more likely to want more activities when you’re older. Some women who took hormones while pregnant may have had kids who have sex-type interests, based on research from women who took hormones for medical reasons while pregnant (Bütikofer et al., 2019). They have more male- or less female-typical behavior if their moms used androgenic progestins while they were pregnant, while kids whose moms used anti-androgenic progestins show the opposite.
People who have the same androgen-deficient condition have very different sexual orientation outcomes. This, as well as the apparent role of puberty virilization or cultural influences on sexual orientation in these illnesses, are important to note. The way a person looks may have an effect on their sexual orientation, at least in some cases People who have the same androgen-deficient condition have very different sexual orientation outcomes. This, as well as the apparent role of puberty virilization or cultural influences on sexual orientation in these illnesses, are important to note. The way a person looks may have an effect on their sexual orientation, at least in some cases. It has long-term physical consequences, such as increased breasts and penises, as well as long-term repercussions on the brain and body’s reproductive capabilities. Future research may examine novel methods for measuring hormone levels in healthy adolescents during their formative years. Over the last decade or two, considerable study has been conducted on a variety of behaviors and other characteristics associated with sex differences. This demonstrates how fascinating it is to discover how fascinating these things are. Additionally, testosterone levels can be determined in amniotic fluid samples. This data collection contains only women who were referred for amniocentesis for medical reasons. This is not to say that this data set represents all women.
Bütikofer, A., Figlio, D. N., Karbownik, K., Kuzawa, C. W., & Salvanes, K. G. (2019). Evidence that prenatal testosterone transfer from male twins reduces the fertility and socioeconomic success of their female co-twins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(14), 6749-6753.
Fisher, A. D., Ristori, J., Morelli, G., & Maggi, M. (2018). The molecular mechanisms of sexual orientation and gender identity. Molecular and cellular endocrinology, 467, 3-13.
Luoto, S., Krams, I., & Rantala, M. J. (2019). A life history approach to the female sexual orientation spectrum: Evolution, development, causal mechanisms, and health. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 48(5), 1273-1308.
Wang, Y., Wu, H., & Sun, Z. S. (2019). The biological basis of sexual orientation: How hormonal, genetic, and environmental factors influence to whom we are sexually attracted. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology, 55, 100798.