Revise Paper

Running head ;MARIJUANA USE









Should Marijuana Use be Legalized?


Touchstone 3.2

Should Marijuana Use be Legalized?

Marijuana is an illegal drug that is used in the United States, with about 37.6 million users. Advocates for marijuana use argue that legalization can reduce crime rates, reduce crime rates, improve public safety, and stimulate the economy. On the contrary, those against marijuana legalization say that the use of marijuana is associated with detrimental health effects on both mental and physical health. Marijuana has a psycho-altering pharmacological ingredient called Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) that acts on cannabinoid receptors and interacts with GABAergic, benzodiazepine, and dopaminergic receptors (Feeney, &Kampman,2016). Marijuana has psycho dynamically affects memory, cognition, perception, and feelings range from relaxation and difficulty in impaired thinking, concentrating, , and alters problem-solving skills(Volkow,et al.,2014). Besides, heavy users are likely to experience depression, panic attacks, and hallucinations. Furthermore, Marijuana smoke contains multiple carcinogens and chemicals that contribute to toxicity on the lungs. Compared to cigarette smoke, the THC in marijuana remains in the body for several weeks thus exerts pharmacodynamic effects for a long time. Marijuana also poses risks to individuals across their lifespan. Marijuana use is associated with adverse consequences, including health issues, exceeding the medical use, and thus, it should not be legalized.  Comment by Eric R Wellington: Cite a source here Comment by Eric R Wellington: Good citations. Comment by Eric R Wellington: Spacing, just proof a bit better. Comment by Eric R Wellington: Very nice start.

The use of marijuana is associated with cancer and compromises the respiratory system. Research has shown that the THC chemical in marijuana can alter cell metabolism. Cannabis smoke produces mutations in cells and tubes of live animals; hence can potentially cause cancer. Research has reported cases of Aero-digestive tract cancers among young men who are daily users of cannabis. A case-control study has also found that their exists an association between cannabis smoking, neck and head cancers (Volkow,et al.,2014. Also, a cohort study of 64,000 adults found an increased incidence of prostate cancer. Additionally, Marijuana use is also associated with inflammattes of the large airways systems, increases airway resistance, and causes lung hyperinflation. Evidence has shown that marijuana smokers are likely to report chronic bronchitis compared to non-smokers. The user’s respiratory immunology also becomes compromised due to marijuana use, as demonstrated by increased respiratory infections and pneumonia rates. Besides, the use of marijuana is associated with vascular a condition that can lead to myocardial infarction, ischemic attacks, and smoke (Feeney, &Kampman, 2016). Marijuana has detrimental effects on vascular resistance and coronary microcirculation. Smoking cannabis regularly affects large airways’ functioning and causes chronic symptoms of bronchitis, such as wheezing, coughing, and sputum. Research has also shown that smoking cannabis produces histophatological changes in the lungs, which precedes the development of cancer. Thus, the use of marijuana should not be legalized because it can result in cancer and weakens the respiratory immune. Comment by Eric R Wellington: What research. Comment by Eric R Wellington: What research? Comment by Eric R Wellington: No end parenthesis Comment by Eric R Wellington: What evidence? Comment by Eric R Wellington: You do a [pretty nice job, but make sure to consistently cite sources.

Marijuana use affects mental health because it is associated with anxiety and depression. The use of marijuana is linked to psychoses among individuals with a pre-existing genetic vulnerability. It also increases the course of illness among patients with schizophrenia. Adults who smoked marijuana in their adolescent stage is associated with impaired neural connectivity are specific brain regions. An example is the precuneurs node that is involved in brain functions that require self-conscious awareness and alertness (Feeney, &Kampman, 2016). Marijuana also affects the fimbria, a hippocampus layer that is vital for memory and learning. Marijuana also reduces functional connectivity in prefrontal networks that is responsible for executive function in the sub cortical networks, which process routines and habits. Imaging studies have also shown that people who use marijuana have decreased activity in their prefrontal regions and reduced their hippocampus volume. As such, it is crucial to prohibit the use of marijuana. Comment by Eric R Wellington: Need to define more Comment by Eric R Wellington: Better, but no citation. Comment by Eric R Wellington: What studies?

Additionally, the use of marijuana leads to decreased school performance and lifetime achievement among adolescents. Marijuana affects critical cognitive functions during acute intoxication and days after use. Besides, students might be functioning at a lower mental level below their natural ability for a lengthy period. Cannabis use results in poor educational performance, which negatively affects occupation choice, choice of mate, quality of life, and level of income. Though THC can be cleared from the brain after some time, it poses serious health risks expected to accumulate due to long term use. Heavy use of marijuana results in long-lasting cognitive impairment among students who used marijuana during adolescents. Comment by Eric R Wellington: Need evidence. Comment by Eric R Wellington: Again you bring up good points, but lack citations to back them up.

Additionally, failure to learn at school for a short period interferes with the subsequent capacity to achieve challenging educational goals. Early use of marijuana is associated with impairments in memory and attention deficits that regularly worsen over a long period. Marijuana use is also associated with impaired school performance and increased school dropout rates. The use of marijuana and increased dropout rates results in a greater need for socio-economic assistance, lower-income, unemployment, lower rates of life satisfaction, and criminal behavior. Thus, marijuana should not be legalized because it is associated with an increased school dropout rate. Comment by Eric R Wellington: You need to back this up with the data.

The use of marijuana is associated with an increase in motor vehicle accidents. Immediate exposures and long term use of marijuana affect the ability to drive. Marijuana is an illicit drug that is associated with fatal accidents and impaired driving. Research indicates an association between THC and performance. Marijuana smoking and blood THC levels of 2 to 5 ng per millimeter are associated with driving impairment. The overall risks of accident occurrence as a result of marijuana use increases by a factor of 2 when a person is driving. In accident culpability analysis, a person who tests positive for THC and those with higher blood levels were seven times more likely to be responsible for motor-vehicle accidents when compared to individuals who did not use drugs before driving. Also, the use of marijuana and alcohol causes more casualties than the use of either drug alone. Therefore, it is essential not to legalize the use of marijuana to decrease accident rates. Due to the health burden of increased rates of an accident due to marijuana use, there is a need for more research to understand the effects of using marijuana on the severity of motor vehicle crashes and drivers’ performance. Comment by Eric R Wellington: Again what research? Comment by Eric R Wellington: Citation?

Marijuana use results in susceptibility and progression of infectious diseases. The immune system protects against infectious disease agents such as parasites, viruses, and bacteria. The immune system protects the body due to its ability to recognize foreign and power to destroy using a repertoire of different cellular mechanisms and types. Changes in the immune systems can result in detrimental health effects (Memedovich, 2018). Reduced immune competence is depicted among those with immuno-compromised HIV patients who use cannabis to stimulate their appetite and cancer patients to relieve nausea that results from chemotherapeutic drugs. Studies have identified the effects of cannabis use on susceptibility to infectious diseases such as Papillomavirus, HCV, and HIV. Comment by Eric R Wellington: Not bad but again, cite consistently

The use of marijuana is associated with detrimental effects during prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal exposure.THC crosses the placenta during pregnancy. Marijuana can stay in the mother’s womb for several weeks, depending on frequency, potency, and the mother’s metabolism. Pregnant women who smoke marijuana are at risk of stillbirth compared to those who do not smoke. Besides, marijuana use has been reported to cause decreased birth weight and lowered in 24 studies showed that marijuana use during pregnancy results in maternal anemia (Leyton, 2016). Besides, it increases babies’ placement in neonatal intensive care units compared to babies whose mothers did not take marijuana. Therefore, marijuana should not be legalized because it negatively affects an infant’s development during pregnancy and affects the mother. Comment by Eric R Wellington: Spacing. Comment by Eric R Wellington: much better here with data

Furthermore, the use of marijuana has long-term effects on children when they grow. Research has shown that prenatal exposure to marijuana is associated with ten years of age of impulsivity and inattention. Prenatal exposure is related to the underachievement of spelling and reading at the age of 10(Gunn, et al.,2016). It also impairs the executive functioning of a child. Executive functioning is a neurobiological process that involves organizing stored information, integrating it with new information, anticipating consequences, weighing options, planning, solving problems, and being cognitively flexible. Some aspects of executive functioning may be negatively affected by marijuana exposure. Studies have also shown that prenatal-exposure is associated with executive functioning deficits during adolescence, such as problem-solving skills that esquire integration and analysis. Comment by Eric R Wellington: better

Moreover, the use of marijuana leads to increased rates of addiction. Signs such as unsuccessful efforts o quit marijuana, giving up on essential activities to use marijuana, and using marijuana even with an understanding that it affects job performance are signs of addiction. Individuals addicted to marijuana are at risk of negative consequences of using the drug, such as learning, addition, and memory problems. The higher the amount of THC in marijuana, the more substantial the effects on the brain (Gunn,et al.,2016). Using marijuana such as edibles and dabbing deliver high THC levels to the user, hence negatively affecting the user. Comment by Eric R Wellington: data?

In summary, marijuana use is associated with substantial adverse effects on health, hence should not be legalized. Marijuana use just like other drugs leads to addiction. Marijuana also interferes with an individual’s cognitive functioning in terms of memory, perception of time and motor function in relation to coordination. Additionally, use of marijuana during adolescents results to long lasting changes in brain function that can negatively affect professional, social and educational achievements. Besides, the effects of the drug on a person’s health can negatively affect their social acceptability. As current policies are shifting o legalization of marijuana, it is crucial to understand that its legalization will lead to negative health consequences. Comment by Eric R Wellington: You need to have a section on the counter arguments, why do some say it is good to use?


Gunn, J. K., Rosales, C. B., Center, K. E., Nuñez, A., Gibson, S. J., Christ, C., &Ehiri, J. E. (2016). Prenatal exposure to cannabis and maternal and child health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open6(4), e009986.

Memedovich, K. A., Dowsett, L. E., Spackman, E., Noseworthy, T., & Clement, F. (2018). The adverse health effects and harms related to marijuana use: an overview review. CMAJ Open6(3), E339–E346.

Feeney, K. E., &Kampman, K. M. (2016). Adverse effects of marijuana use. The Linacre Quarterly83(2), 174–178.

Wilkinson S. T. (2018). Medical and recreational Marijuana: commentary and review of the literature. Missouri medicine110(6), 524–528.

Hopfer, C. (2014). Implications of marijuana legalization for adolescent substance use. Substance abuse35(4), 331–335.

Leyton, M. (2016). Legalizing Marijuana. Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN41(2), 75–76.

Volkow, N. D., Baler, R. D., Compton, W. M., & Weiss, S. R. (2014). Adverse health effects of marijuana use. The New England journal of medicine370(23), 2219–2227.




1. Touchstone 3.2 Rubric and Feedback
Rubric Category Feedback Score (acceptable, needs improvement etc.)


Argument Development and Support


The argument is not fully developed; while it is supported by some relevant details, including rhetorical appeals and source material, some aspects of the argument are neglected.  





Cites outside sources, but most are cited improperly; incorporates sources through direct quotation, paraphrase, or summary, but the integration is not smooth and/or the credibility of the sources is unclear. 20/30


Organization Includes all of the required components of an argumentative research paper, including an introduction with relevant and engaging background information and an argumentative thesis, an adequate number of body paragraphs with topic sentences, a body paragraph addressing counterargument(s), and a conclusion with a concluding statement.







Demonstrates generally effective style choices, but may include occasional redundancies, imprecise language, poor word choice, and/or repetitive sentence structures. 4/5


Conventions There are occasional minor errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage  



Reflection Primarily demonstrates thoughtful reflection, but some responses are lacking in detail or insight; primarily follows response length guidelines. 4/5


Overall Score and Feedback:71/100


I have inserted comment in the text for things to think about. The paper did have many strong points, but needs a good deal of work on proper citation to back up the statements you make. I do think you need a stronger counter argument section. Evidence and citations need additional work as well.

0 replies

Leave a Reply

Want to join the discussion?
Feel free to contribute!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *