Nursing Assignment

Need a nursing assignment done on Kolcaba’s Comfort Theory



XYZ theory is important to nursing because it  addresses the problem of  __________that affects x% of the population. Theorist (year) developed this middle range theory to explain xxxx.


Description of the theory


1. Completes the table in the template (assumptions, main concepts, propositions (if any)

2. Includes the model (if available). When the table displays the main concepts and linkages (propositions), delete the table, and list the main assumptions (if any) underpinning the theory.

3. Instruments used to measure this theory (if any) and cites them by author (year).




· search engines used

· inclusion/exclusion criteria

· keywords

· parameters for dates of publication.


Review of Evidence

1. Completes all areas of the evidence (integrative review) table in the template using the most important, relevant, supporting articles that provide evidence.

2. Includes the most representative 8 studies supporting this theory AND the primary theory paper UNLESS there are fewer than 8 studies.

3. Includes a primary source for the theory.

Paper (author, year) Discipline Purpose

Research  questions/ Hypotheses

Sample (including size) Instruments used Variables/ Analysis of dat Findings Strengths/


Level of evidence* (using only A, B, C,…M)

4. Rates the evidence using the AACN rating scale below.

*American Association of Critical Care Nurses’ (2011). Evidence Leveling System
A Meta-analysis of multiple controlled studies or meta-synthesis of qualitative studies with results that consistently support a specific action, intervention or treatment.
B Well designed controlled studies, both randomized and nonrandomized, with results that consistently support a specific action, intervention, or treatment.
C Qualitative studies, descriptive or correlational studies, integrative reviews, systematic reviews, or randomized controlled trials with inconsistent results.
D Peer-reviewed professional standards, with clinical studies to support recommendations.
E Theory-based evidence from expert opinion or multiple case reports.
M Manufacturer’s recommendation




Proposed Clinical Practice Guidelines to Clinically Apply Theory


1. The developed guidelines are practice guidelines for the nurse to follow.  They are what the nurse should do to implement this theory in practice.  They derive from the theory (and reflect the theory) to:

· Optimize patient care

· Are informed by a systematic review of the literature as noted in table of evidence.

· Includes an appraisal of the harms/benefits of other care options. [Modified to be the harms and benefits of these practice guidelines].

· Include an explanation of the reasoning behind the recommendation, a rating of the level of confidence, certainty about the evidence, [Note that you will use the rating of the evidence from the table of evidence]

· Rating of strength of the clinical recommendation

Institute of Medicine (2011). Clinical practice guidelines we can trust. Washington, DC: Author.Retrieved from

2. Format for Writing the Guidelines:

WHEN {under what circumstances} WHO {in the Intended Audience} •Ought to {with what level of obligation} • DO WHAT • {To WHOM} {which members of the target population}• HOW • WHY

Source:  Schiffman, R. (ND). Recognizing trustworthy guidelines: The new IOM standards. Retrieved from

3. Every guideline addresses the IOM (2011)  standards (directly quoted below):

3.1 An explanation of the reasoning underlying the recommendation, including:

· A clear description of potential benefits and harms. [At the end of your practice guidelines].

· A summary of relevant available evidence(and evidentiary gaps), description of the quality (including applicability), quantity (including completeness), and consistency of the aggregate available evidence. [This is in your evidence table]

· An explanation of the part played by values, opinion, theory, and clinical experience in deriving the recommendation.

· A rating of the level of confidence in (certainty regarding) the evidence underpinning the recommendation.

3.2 A rating of the strength of the recommendation in light of the preceding bullets.

3.3 A description and explanation of any differences of opinion regarding the recommendation.

Institute of Medicine (2011). Standards for developing trustworthy guidelines. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from

 All of the above are the guidelines that were used to design this poster. 

How this will be graded:

Part III. Practice Guidelines

1) Conceptual organizers fit the theory (5 points)

2) CPGs are succinct and focused on what the nurse will do to implement the theory into practice. 

3) CPGs implement the theory into practice.

4) CPGs are accurately referenced with their evidence using (author, year).

5) CPGs are accurately weighted using the weighting metric in Part III.

6) Harms and benefits of using the CPGs are stated.





Brief, succinct reason why this theory and these guidelines should be adopted by a health care agency.





1. Includes all references used in the poster.

2. References are all primary sources.

3. All references are in correct APA format.                                                                                                                                                                             4. Everything that is cited is referenced in the reference list.


Clinical Practice Guideline Evidence Table

XYZ theory is important to nursing because it addresses the problem of __________that affects x% of the population. Smith (2020) developed this middle range theory to explain xxxx.







(Brief, succinct reason why this theory and these guidelines should be adopted by a health care agency).


Armola, R.R., Bourgault, A. M., Halm, M. A., Board, R.M., Harrington, L., Heafey, C. A., Lee, R., Shellner, P. K., Medina, J. (2009). AACN levels of evidence: What’s new? Critical Care Nurse 29(4), 70-73.

Contact Information and Acknowledgements

Contact information



Course Designer:

A qualitative synthesis of XYZ theory was conducted to ascertain the evidence supporting the use of xyz theory in nursing practice, nursing research, nursing education, and nursing administration.

Synopsis of Proposed Clinical Practice Guidelines Using XYZ Theory

Student name, BSN, RN


Application of xyz Theory

Assumptions of XYZ Theory Major Concepts Propositions

Model showing relationship between the concepts


Reference Discipline Purpose/ Research Question(s)/ Hypotheses Sample & Instruments used Variables Analysis of Data Findings Strengths/ Limitations 1 Level of evidence
Otoo, Lartey & Perez-Escamilla (2009) Nursing Incentives/Barriers to exclusive breastfeeding in periurban Ghanian women n= 35 women with child <4 mo. x age=27.5 _____________ 4 focus groups of 7-10 women; 10 open ended questions, Demographics 4 discussion areas: Knowledge of EBF, reasons, motivation, benefits of EBF, barriers to EBF and consequences EBF easier milk flow barriers= jobs, breast/nipple problems, perceived insuf. milk family pressure Convenience sample; possible bias from social pressure in group C

Include inclusion/exclusion criteria for literature search, search engines used, keyterms used in the search, parameters for dates of publication

Qualifying Statement

These guidelines were developed by the author as a master’s student project for NURSING. They were designed to provide nurses with proposed clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the clinical application of this middle range theory based on the best available evidence at the time these were written. They were not developed by an expert panel. This document is not intended to impose a standard of care that prevents a variance in a specific situation. They are proposed guidelines that should only be used according to the nurse’s judgment of their usefulness with each individual patient and situation.

1American Association of Critical Care Nurses’ (2011). Evidence Leveling System
A Meta-analysis of multiple controlled studies or meta-synthesis of qualitative studies with results that consistently support a specific action, intervention or treatment
B Well designed controlled studies, both randomized and nonrandomized, with results that consistently support a specific action, intervention, or treatment.
C Qualitative studies, descriptive or correlational studies, integrative reviews, systematic reviews, or randomized controlled trials with inconsistent results.
D Peer-reviewed professional standards, with clinical studies to support recommendations.
E Theory-based evidence from expert opinion or multiple case reports.
M Manufacturer’s recommendation

Benefits/Harms of Implementing the Guideline Recommendations

Potential Benefits


Potential Harms


Strength of Recommendation Rating Scale
A (High) Recommendation Meta-analysis of high quality well-controlled studies or of qualitative studies that consistently support action, intervention, or treatment; relevant to practice
B (Moderate) Recommendation High quality evidence with minor differences in findings; Based on Level B, C, or D evidence: relevant to practice
C (Weak) Recommendation Limited or low quality evidence; based on consensus of usual practice.
NR Not Recommended Unable to recommend based on current evidence; weak evidence or heterogeneity of findings;
Assessments Assess all women admitted to Labor and Delivery for risk factors (single, minimal support system, hx of depression) for PPD (Smith, 2020 [A]; Jones, 2025 [B]) The [A] or [B] after the author, year is the weight of that evidence from your evidence table. Notice how well the CPG will now be supported with graded evidence. A


Decision options

Clinical Practice Guidelines

Strength of Recommendation




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