Order # 12565

Title: please add 4 more pages -zzy

Paper type Other (Not listed)

Paper format MLA

Course level High School

Subject Area Other (Not listed)

# pages 4   ( or 1200 words Minimum)

Spacing Double Spacing

# sources 4

Paper Details

I have done 4 pages. Please add 4 more pages

Instructor Tan

Writing 39C


AP Draft 1

Nowadays, sleep deprivation is a significant health problem which is torturing a large number of students in college. The recommended amount of sleep needed for college students is about 8 hours per night, but the college students only sleep about 6 to 6.9 hours on average per night which is too much far away from 8 hours. 50% of college students are suffering daytime sleepiness which is caused by sleep deprivation compared to 36% of adolescents and adults. There is really a significant number of students who are suffering sleep deprivation and some consequence caused by it in the college, and what is more surprising is that the percentage is even much higher than adolescents and adults. Adults are always supposed to have the heaviest pressure, but college students are the group of people who have the least sleep time. According to the HCP research, morning classes, irregular schedules and technology are three main contributors to the sleep deprivation in college.

The first emerging contributor to the sleep deprivation in the college is that many college students have morning classes. Most of college students cannot sleep fall asleep early, but they still need to attend early morning classes. For example, if students have 8 a.m. classes, they have to get up about one hour before classes at 7 a.m. In order to have at least 8 hours sleep, they should go to sleep before 11 p.m. the night before the class. However, as college students all know, it is difficult to go to sleep before 11 p.m. According to Walter Buboltz Jr., Steve M. Jenkins, Barlow Soper, Kevin Woller, Patrick Johnson, and Theresa Faes’s study, on average, college student go to sleep at 11:25 p.m. during the week and at 12:31 a.m. during the weekend. Average time to fall asleep is 23 minutes which means college students fall asleep about at midnight (Walter). You can see that it is really a huge challenge for college students to fall asleep before 11 p.m. Angela K. Dills and Rey Hernandez-Julian indicated that each hour later after 8 a.m. in the day that a class started was associated with a 0.024 GPA increase, and the average GPA reached the highest in the afternoon. The study shows that morning classes had a negative effect on student’s GPA (Dills). Cancelling morning classes or moving morning classes to other time slots are potential solutions to solve this problem. Lake Superior State University in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan planned to replace all 8 a.m. classes by a free “common hour” intended to increase participation in recently instituted shared governance initiatives at the university. The “common hour” was not mandatory, and students could whether sleep at home or take part in the governance initiatives. This college only had about 2000 students and 400 employees, so this was an efficient way to build a bridge between students and officials. Richard Homan, the president of the Student Government in Lake Superior State University said, “I haven’t heard a single negative response from any of our current students. Many students take this as a chance to prepare for classes, complete homework and attend university committee meetings.” (Logue). However, when they were going to execute this plan, they thought about some problems. Michael Reilly, executive director of the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, said, “ most campuses would find it difficult to make up the lost classroom capacity from ending 8 a.m. classes. The best solution might involve online versions of those early courses.” (Logue). As a result, the college decided to move all classes one hours later — 8 a.m. to 9 a.m., and so on so that 8 a.m. were all cancelled. This solution is indeed working in Lake Superior State University. [MORE RESEARCH HOW IT WORKS NOW IF AVAILABLE] Changing 8 a.m. classes to online versionS and moving school schedule later are two potential ways to solve the sleep deprivation problem in college.

Irregular schedules are another causation why the sleep deprivation is so common in college. Ranasinghe, Gayathri and Priya point out that most college students do not sleep early. From the Figure , almost 1/3 college students sleep after 12pm, and only 17% students sleep early (before 10pm). They also said, “Sleep deprivation and sleeplessness are caused by a host of reasons, 38.4% of students find that internet is the predominant cause for their sleep deprivation and 21% of participants highlighted stress as the second major cause of sleep deprivation. This may be because students have to balance their studies and social life at the same time.” (Ranasinghe). In addition, Internet and stress were two biggest reasons why college students had irregular schedules. Reducing some academic pressure is a potential way to solve this problem. [MORE RESEARCH NEEDED].

Thirdly, technology devices are a reason which cause the sleep deprivation in college. Technology devices like phones and tablet can spread a kind of light called blue light which has more energy and do harm to people’s eyes and sleep. Preventing from blue light, college students can wear blue light blocking glasses if they still need to use technology devices before bed time. In a study in 2009, researchers let volunteers wear blue light blocking glasses for three hours before go to bed, and the experiment lasted for three weeks. In the end of the experiment, volunteers’ quality of sleep kept climbing in these three weeks (Kimberly). Blue light blocking glasses really help students have a better sleep. Similarly, van der Lely and some other researchers stated that blue light blocking glasses was helpful to increase the melatonin level which can make people feel sleepy in human bodies, and they decreased the alerting effects which caused by light exposure through LED screens before bedtime(van). Multiple evidences can support that blue light blocking glasses make the sleep easier and more comfortable. [MORE RESEARCH ABOUT GLASSES]. Wearing blue light blocking glasses is not a permanent way to get rid of the damage caused by technology devices. Some consequence caused by technology devices still appears. Adams and Kisler found that 47% reported nighttime awakenings to answer text messages and 40% awoke to answer phone calls which may cause the sleep deprivation (Adams).







Buboltz, Walter, et al. “Sleep Habits and Patterns of College Students: An Expanded Study.” The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Wiley-Blackwell, 23 Dec. 2011, onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/j.2161-1882.2009.tb00109.x.

Dills, Angela K., and Rey Hernandez-Julian. “Course Scheduling and Academic Performance.” SSRN Electronic Journal, 2007, doi:10.2139/ssrn.756847.

Logue, Josh. “No More 8 A.M. Classes.” Inside Higher Ed, Inside Higher Ed, www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/02/17/university-decides-eliminate-8-am-classes.

Kimberly, Burkhart, and Phelps James. “AMBER LENSES TO BLOCK BLUE LIGHT AND IMPROVE SLEEP: A RANDOMIZED TRIAL.” Taylor and Francis Online, www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/07420520903523719.

Adams, S.K., Kisler, T.S. (2013). “Sleep quality as a mediator between technology-related sleep quality, depression, and anxiety.” 1 January 2013, Pages 25-30. https://www.scopus.com/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84872566932&origin=inward&txGid=6beb6c9f9fd1552e6d063283c7ef6427

van, S, et al. “Blue Blocker Glasses as a Countermeasure for Alerting Effects of Evening Light-Emitting Diode Screen Exposure in Male Teenagers.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Jan. 2015, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25287985.

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