Anatomy

Chapter 23: The Skeletal System

KEY TERMS

Axial skeleton versus

Hyoid bone

Appendicular skeleton

Pectoral girdle

Pelvic girdle

Ligament

Tendon

Shapes:

1. Long

· Diaphysis

· Compaact bone

· Medullary cavity

· Endosteum

· Yellow bone marrow

· Epiphysis

· Spongy bone

· Red bone marrow

i. hematopoiesis

· Articular cartilage

· periosteum

2. Short

3. Flat

4. Irregular

5. Sesamoid

Ossification

Epiphyseal disk

Osteoblast

Osteocyte

Osteoclast

Articulation

Foramen

Process

Crest

Head

Suture

Fossa

Fontanel

Skull:

A. Major Cranial bones:

1. Frontal

2. Parietal (2)

3. Occipital

a. Foramen magnum

4. Temporal (2)

a. External auditory meatus

b. Mastoid process

5. Ear Ossicles

a. Malleus

b. Incus

c. Stapes

B. Major Facial bones:

1. Mandible

2. Maxillae (2)

3. Zygomatic (2)

4. Nasal (2)

5. Palatine

Spinal Column:

1. Cervical

2. Thoracic

3. Lumbar

4. Sacral

5. Coccygeal

Thoracic Cage

Sternum

True ribs

Costal cartilage

False ribs

Floating ribs

Pectoral girdle

1. Clavicles

2. Scapulae

Upper extremity bones:

· Humerus

· Radius

· Ulna

· Carpal bones

· Metacarpal bones

· Phalanges

Pelvic girdle:

1. Coxal bone (2)

a. Ilium

b. Ischium

c. pubis

2. sacrum

Lower extremity bones:

· Femur

· Acetabulum

· Patella

· Tibia

· Fibula

· Tarsal bones

· Calcaneus

· Metatarsal bones

· Phalanges

Articulations:

1. Fibrous

a. suture

2. Cartilaginous

a. Pubis symphysis

b. Intervertebral disc

3. Synovial

a. Knee

· Joint capsule

· Ligament

· Synovial fluid

· Joint cavity

· Synovial membrane

Diseases:

Osteoarthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis

Bursitis

Ewing sarcoma

Fractures

· Complete

· Incomplete

· Simple

· Compound

· Greenstick

· Comminuted

· Impacted

· Spiral

· Reduction

o Closed

o Open

Gout

Kyphosis

Lordosis

Scoliosis

Osteogenesis imperfect

Osteoporosis

Bone density test versus bone scan

Osteosarcoma

Paget’s disease

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